1. Executive Summary
The environment and the culture have a very close relationship with each other as the culture is very important and developed with the changes in the environment. The main finding of the reports will include the acts that conserve the heritage sites and also there is found the importance of cultural sites to the country and also for tourism which ultimately led to the increase in the economic condition of the country.
The conservation of the heritage and culture is important as these are the past identity of modern society from which the roots of the culture are linked with the moral values and cultural values which need to conserve in sustainable ways.
The Hill End NSW is a site where the historical part of the goldmines of Australia is saved and the tourist who is fascinated about Australia and with this site is also giving the unique experience of the time when colonial things had taken part in the country and the street on which they present as it is and there is also some mines of gold which facilitate the mines of gold with the crawling way throughout the cave mines and at this site, there is also the presence of scenario which are needed to be seen and present from old time (Ruhanen, et al., 2015).
Culture and environment are correlated with each other as the environment has a vast impact on the culture and culture depends on the environment which affects most of the culture. If preserving the culture means preserving the environment which leads to the development of tourism which must be developed in various parts of the country.
According to ICOMOS, the cultural landscape can be described as the place where or geographic area includes both cultural resources and natural resources and is associated with the historic event, person or any other ethical value. For this, there is a law that prevails in Australia that promotes the awareness and identification of the cultural landscape.
The Hill End NSW is a site where the goldmines of the historic times are preserved in hills and also there is present of the landscape where painters used to sketch their imagination to shape in painting and culturally there is the presence of the colonial streets and other things which gives a cultural idea of that particular place.
Domestic tourism means tourists of native Australia travelling interstate or intrastate for the purpose of the tours to a specific place. Domestic tourism contributed more than 4% of Australia’s GDP. There is a trend that the regional cities which are not capital cities have more benefits and perform well in comparison with the capital cities.
Cultural tourism has the special experience of archaeological and historic sites which have a great impact on the present cultural time. And this tour includes all the religious places, museums, national parks and also some monuments. There is an increase in cultural tourism in Australia and is still developing the standards of the culture (Gordon 2018).
The history of Hill End is listed as the gold rush town as a heritage site, the ownership of the site is the office of Environment and Heritage which is registered in the NSW Heritage register.
Management structure and stakeholders
For the management of the structure, the site is managed on the principles of the National park and Wildlife act which includes the conservation of places, providing the sustainable use of the place and values of the culture. The management plan consists of landscape management with cultural and tourism recreation planning.
the stakeholders involved in the Hill End are government and the management crew with the caretakers of the sites and also there is a tourist that came to see the place. And other brands who are sponsoring the hotels and other accommodations for the tourists so that the visits can be made in a simplified and understandable way and make tourists comfortable with Hill End.
The Hill End is a significant place of the 19th century that is protected under the unique cultural landscape at the Hill End under the Heritage Act 1977. The heritage and cultural sites contain very unique things which are needed for the protection of the sites and also to preserve the culture of the 19th century (Santa-Cruz,& López-Guzmán 2017).
Between 1908 and 1924 there a specimen of reef gold mines is discovered which was the world’s largest and the place owned at that time and known as the Holtermann’s Nugget.
This site is also famous for the artists the view of the hills always attracts the artists and there is a trend in Australian society of romance and most of the painters have their selection of the panting of the place and the remarkable collection was made which belong to Hill End.
The village that is present at the Hill End was untouched by the development since 1900 which is also a good option and making more tourist place. And many archaeological things found in Hill End are Tambaroora, Golden Gully, Quartz Roasting Pits, and Valentine’s Mines. The Hill End also facilitate the accommodation for the tourist and also visitor for the stay so that there will a comfortable settlement of the place can be achieved.
The historic monument and the cultural moments are important and represent the cultural values and development process of any particular and this shows the steps of the history which is created during the ancient times to the modern times. The role of tourism is very vital for the country in modern times and for this most of the tourists are interested in the cultural things which leads to the preservation of the heritage culture of the country and this makes more attraction place of any country (Santa-Cruz,& López-Guzmán 2017).
The most important and valuable resource that is important for the development of the tourism industry is the heritage sites help in expressing the cultural identification and tradition of the country, or for any region or any town.
For this, there is always important to conserve and preserve the heritage site that helps in facilitating the understanding of harmony and secularism in the country. The heritage sites always thought lessons from the past and always remind the country of the basic and natural needs from which the transformation of the country took place.
The tangible cultural heritage can be referred to as the artefacts that are presented at the site and this will include all the buildings and monuments, buildings and other human creativity made by humans in ancient times. The best example of the tangible cultural heritage of Hill End NSW is Tambaroora which is surrounded by the land of the crown and attracts the tourist for gold (Park, et al., 2019).
The Intangible cultural heritage can be referred to as the indication of any knowledge, skills or any object or artefact that is related to any particular community from ancient times and this includes all the skills like folk dances, local knowledge or any other skills that are famous in the area. The best example of the intangible cultural heritage of the Hill End Is the painting skills which have very remarkable paintings in the state of Australia (Park, et al., 2019).
According to the analysis that is done annually there are 35000 visitors annually who visit Hill End NSW. This place is surrounded by mountains and is also a historic site in Australia which also has a great influence on the cultural tourism on this site as this site is preserved under the heritage Act 1977 (Ruhanen, et al., 2015).
The type of cultural tourist that came to visit this place as per the analysis of the Hill End NSW
- Purposeful Cultural Tourists: these are tourists who came to visit this site for the culture and are interested in knowing the ancient culture and enjoying the old culture.
- Incidental Cultural Tourists: these are tourists who came to visit the participate in the activities or events that are conducted at the Hill End NSW.
- Sightseeing cultural tourists: these tourists are the reason for taking the experience of the place without taking any deep knowledge of the place (Ruhanen, et al., 2015).
The importance of tourism development is to involve the locals while making the tourism policies as they are both important for the development and the policies that are made by the government. This involvement of the locals in tourism development has great advantages in different fields of tourism.
When policies are made with the locals and their interests and concerns are considered while making policies for the tourism guide then there will build of trust with the locals, this is important because locals help in making policies implemented in the local area more effectively (Abascal, et al., 2016).
The satisfaction of the locals will help in increasing tourism because locals will adjust to tourists and the behaviour of locals towards the tourist will be positive and this will result in a positive rating of the place. The locals know the places well and know the area and how to handle needy things that can be covered in the tourist facility this enables a strong bond between the policymakers and locals. These locals are important for the development of the places and help to make them more effective and there is the generation of employment in the area and enables economic benefit.
The Burra charter was created in 1979 under the Australia ICOMOS charter for the places of cultural significance in Australia. The purpose of the Burra charter was to conserve the heritage sites of the country. This charter has the special significance of the standards which outlines the criteria for the cultural places and helps in conserving the heritage sites of Australia.
The Burra Charter ensures the sustainable development of the cultural sites as there is well aware of the importance of the cultural sites and there is development and measures are taken for the conservation of the heritage site and this helps to maintain the proper structure of the cultural sites and this leads to making of conservation. This Burra Charter helps in making more effective rules and regulations for preserving the cultural rights of the locals and policies that are made for Hill End NSW (Pratt, 2015).
The audit of Hill End NSW is done with different criteria and on that basis, there are a number of outcomes that came out that helps in making the place and site conserved for the tourist. The policies of Hill End NSW have been involved in such a way that there is the involvement of the locals which makes more effective policies.
The building and gold mining Gully which are preserved at the Hill End are now in the good condition by taking proper steps for renovation and these efforts of the government make the site more beautiful with the tourist attraction of the place (Pratt, 2015). The cultural landscape such as Tambaroora, golden Gully and valentines Mine are in good condition which ensures the sustainability of the cultural landscape. The village which is near Hill End NSW have been remain untouched since the 19th century.
The potential threat that makes the heritage threat to the worst conditions and these threats are mainly the potential of making the hazards and various conditions occur that are responsible for the loss of heritage. The heritage loss is like a loss of the old identity and this will not be acceptable (Higgins-Desbiolles, 2018).
There are many factors that are responsible for the threat of heritage loss and these are:
- Natural Causes: these are the natural disasters that occur in the area of Hill End NSW and have a great negative impact on the site. Natural disasters like earthquakes and extreme climatic conditions.
- Man Made cause that includes wars and armed conflict that have many chances of destroying the heritage site in a negative way.
- Unchecked Tourist development which makes the sites more expose to the people and without any proper laws and policies there is no control on the quality and people use to destroy the place.
Sustainable tourism is important for the conservation of any heritage site and this involves many steps which are taken to make a sustainable tourist place. For making tourism sustainable many government policies are made by the Australian Government and also various acts are prevailing throughout the country to make effective and sustainable heritage sites and this sustainably leads to tourism (Higgins-Desbiolles, 2018).
For the recommendation of sustainable tourism for the Hill End NSW
- Involvement of locals so that the behaviour towards the tourist can be improved
- Always go green at the tourist place so that the heritage place can be conserved properly.
- Spreading of more awareness among the citizens about the importance of heritage and culture so that citizens also make efforts to save and secure tourism.
Chart for the Contribution of the Tourism to GDP of Australia
- Number of Domestic tourists in Australia annually
- Public Attributes towards multiculturalism
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Gordon, J. E. (2018). Geoheritage, geotourism and the cultural landscape: Enhancing the visitor experience and promoting geoconservation. Geosciences, 8(4), 136. Available at https://sci-hub.hkvisa.net/10.3390/geosciences8040136
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Park, E., Choi, B. K., & Lee, T. J. (2019). The role and dimensions of authenticity in heritage tourism. Tourism Management, 74, 99-109. Available at https://sci-hub.hkvisa.net/10.1016/j.tourman.2019.03.001
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Santa-Cruz, F. G., & López-Guzmán, T. (2017). Culture, tourism and world heritage sites. Tourism Management Perspectives, 24, 111-116. Available at https://sci-hub.hkvisa.net/10.1016/j.tmp.2017.08.004