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Table of Contents

Introduction. 3

Question 1. 3

Question 2. 3

Question 3. 5

Question 4. 7

Question 5. 8

Question 6. 11

Conclusion. 13





Data modeling is the process that helps to create a simplified diagram of any software system. Moreover, the data modeling contains the data elements, text, and some symbols that have been used for showing the workflows of the data modeling. In this task, a diagram has been created to get a detailed visualization of the work. One of the most important things that have been created in this task is to provide the database and the name of the platform that has been used for this task is Microsoft access. All of the detailed information has been included in this report.

Question 1

Figure 1: Context diagram of the CRM system

(Source: Created by self)

Question 2

Information stream outlines provide a visual representation of the framework that anticipates being accessible to both PC subject matter experts and non-expert customers. The models enable real-time cooperation between computer programmers, clients, and customers during needs-specific research. Although this means that the customers must understand the showing techniques and developments, the information stream exhibiting only makes use of a small number of builds, and the ideas used are meant to be straightforward and easy to understand (Valacich, & George, 2022). Processes are the primary actions carried out inside the parameters of the framework and involve customer data. The model deals with a cycle where the information that contributes to the action is controlled or altered in some way such that the information coming out of the interaction is altered in comparison to that which flowed in. The activity can include gathering information about something the association is interested in, such as a client or a client’s maintenance needs.

Figure 2: Data Flow Diagram for the CRM

(Source: Created by the developer)

It could be concerned with documenting changes to this data, such as changing a client’s location. It could require approving data, such as guaranteeing that defective gear is covered by a maintenance contract, or it might include expecting estimates to be finished, such as the quantity of stock remaining after the part of stock items to a client’s task. The cycle number is in the box in the top left corner (Malinova Mandelburger, & Mendling, 2021). This in no way implies a need for succession and is just being provided for clear evidence and reference. The core component of the crate is used to represent the real interaction, showing how the information it receives is handled. The Current Physical Data-Flow Diagram uses the smaller rectangular box at the bottom of the cycle to indicate where handling takes place.

This might be the real location of the stock room or the customer service department, for example. However, this means that the employee position responsible for carrying out the procedure is used even more often (Siau et al. 2020). For instance, sales support, purchasing, and customer services. A material that interacts with a framework by sending data into it or receiving data from it is referred to as an outside element. As with the operating model’s Customer and Supplier, outside substances may be external to the whole organization or they may simply be external to the application area where customers’ activities are not directly supported by the framework under investigation.

As recipients of data from the framework, records and engineering are represented as exterior substances. Deals contribute to the structure as well. In the sense that they transmit data into the framework or receive data from it, outside elements are things that exist beyond the framework’s bounds. As with the operating model’s Customer and Supplier, external factors may be external to the whole organization or they may simply be external to the application area where the system under investigation does not directly support the customers’ activities (Kapoor, Kumar, & Mishra, 2021). Records and engineering are shown as extraneous elements since they get data from the framework. Deals contribute to the structure as well.

Question 3


It can identify current business processes with the use of data flow diagrams (DFD). It’s a method it finds useful, especially before it engages in business process re-engineering. An information stream chart examines how information flows through a framework in the simplest possible way. It involves issues like where the data will originate from, where it will flow, and where it will be stored (Donges et al. 2019). In any case, the handling time information is not available (for example whether the cycles occur in arrangement or equal amounts). A setup graph, a plain representation of the complete framework, is where it usually starts. it dives down to a level 1 overview with further information on the key components of the framework to elaborate further from there.

Figure 3: Level 1 DFD for CRM

(Source: Created by self)

When the further analysis is needed, this might continue to evolve into a level 2 graph. Moving up to levels 3, 4, and so on is possible, although moving beyond level 3 isn’t very common. Please keep in mind that the level of data sought depends on the cycle change strategy. One of the most often used graphical tools to assess a framework’s evident degree of utility is an information stream chart (DFD). The primary component of a DFD, the cycle shape, addresses the component of the framework that modifies certain (informational) contributions to the outcome (Lin et al. 2020). The cycle may be constantly separated to address the more modest practical units in another DFD, also known as another level, and it is typically referred to collection of significant framework capabilities.

Question 4

Figure 4: ERD for the CRM system

(Source: Created by the learner)


  1. “Create a list of activities.
  2. “Construct context level DFD (Identifies external entities and processes)”.
  3. “Construct level 0 DFD (Identifies manageable sub-process)”.
  4. “Construct level 1 DFD (Identifies actual data flows and data stores)”.

A context DFD

  1. “To create a DFD, select Diagram > New from the toolbar”.
  2. “In the New Diagram window, select Data Flow Diagram and click Next”.
  3. “Enter Context Diagram as diagram name and click OK to confirm”.
  4. “Name the diagram Context Diagram”.

Figure 5: The whole system as a single process

(Source: Generated by self)

Question 5

Data sets resemble the initial information storage in many ways. it started expecting to store information when it stopped treating PCs as famous adding machines and started using them to solve business problems. A data set that makes use of the social model of information is known as a social data set or RDB. Tables are used to organize information. There is a structure for each table that describes the segments for that table. The table’s lines, each of which addresses a real record of data, should conform to the design by including a value (or a NULL incentive) for each segment (Rahim, & Malik, 2021). Each table column has a unique special key, also known as a vital key. Typically, this is a chunk of numbers called “ID.” The ID of this table could be mentioned in a line in another table, linking the two tables together. it refers to this as an unfamiliar key when a portion of one database refers to the primary key of another table. This concept of vital keys and unfamiliar keys allows us to handle very complicated information relationships with quite simple foundations.

Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD), also known as the Trauma Centre Diagram, is a graph that depicts the relationships between the element sets stored in a data collection. Overall, ER charts aid in understanding the valid construction of data sets. Three key concepts—elements, traits, and connections—are taken into consideration while creating emergency room charts. The many representations in a trauma center diagram use square forms to describe substances, oval shapes to describe features, and jewel shapes to describe connections. An ER chart and a flowchart both seem similar at first glance. Nevertheless, ER Diagram uses a lot of detailed pictures, and the consequences of this model are unique. Addressing the substance system basis is the purpose of the ER Diagram. Use a data set to store essential information about the company.

The most reliable kind of information repository is data sets. It’s possible that the data doesn’t fit social patterns well or that the behavior is changing significantly enough that the rigid structure of a social data collection is dampening the course of events. Over the years, PC researchers performed excellent planning work to make data sets stable and easily available, so it started requiring them to include them for non-social information as well. Information that doesn’t strictly conform to any architecture or whose mapping is so unpredictable that attempting to handle it in a social structure would be very difficult (Roy, & Matsagar, 2021). The term “NoSQL” information bases are widely used to describe these non-social data sets. With the notable exception of not supporting compositions, they have many characteristics with SQL information bases (strong, flexible, diligent, repeated, distributed, and performant).

A report store is essentially a fancy key-value store where the key is often forgotten and never used (even if one is given out in the engine – it couldn’t give a damn about it). It approaches the information store as if it has been just a large display of these masses of semi-organized data, with the characteristics being masses of information in the form of JSON or XML. The route or sort is based on the content of those archive masses using the report store’s query language. A broad section store sits in between a record shop and a social database. It uses tables, lines, and sections much like a social database, but various columns in the same table may have distinct segment names and settings. Key-esteem stores are now a common and straightforward way to execute a reserve thanks to these removal techniques. Redis and Memcached differ significantly in that Redis support a few information structures as values.

Information is often moved across administrations using Kafka. In comparison to other models, the maker purchaser model has a significant advantage since Kafka serves as the message merchant. A ledger, for instance, cannot be usefully identified without knowing the bank where the record is kept, making the financial balance a weak component. A crucial characteristic may dramatically separate material from an elemental set. For instance, one understudy may be easily distinguished from a group of understudies by their roll number. As with other features, the important quality is addressed by an oval, but the wording of the essential characteristic is highlighted.

Composite characteristics are traits that combine many traits. For example, the understudy address in understudy material is a composite feature since a location is made up of many characteristics, such as a pin code, state, and nation. A multivalued characteristic has several possible values. In an ER Diagram, it is addressed using double ovals. Since a person might have many phone numbers, the telephone number characteristic has multiple values. A determined quality is one whose value is derived from another quality and is dynamic.

Ran oval addresses it in an ER diagram. Person age, for example, is an inferred attribute since it fluctuates over time and may be determined from another feature (Date of birth). Every element in a substance set should have at least one connection in a relationship set, according to the all-out support of a substance set. It is also known as required interest. For instance, each school should have at least one connected Student in the following chart(Roy, & Matsagar, 2021). Every component of an element set may participate in a relationship that occurs in a substance set according to the concept of fractional cooperation. Discretionary assistance is another name for it. One line connecting the element set and relationship set is used to address incomplete investment.

Question 6

Figure 6: Consumer Table

(Source: Created by self)

Figure 7: Employee Table

(Source: Created by the developer)

Figure 8: Administration Table

(Source: Developed by the developer)

Figure 9: Project Table

(Source: Generated by the developer)

A key component of computer programming is the division of the development cycle into a series of phases, or steps, each of which is focused on a particular aspect of the course of events. The product advancement life cycle is a term sometimes used to refer to the collection of various methods. This life cycle is followed by the product item until it is finally retired from usage. The existence cycle should ideally allow for correctness checks at each step before moving on to the next. When laying up requirements, partners are consulted about what they need from a framework, and their knowledge of this is shared via an explanation of prerequisites. The analysis starts by taking into account the statement of requirements and ends by developing a framework in detail. The specifics are an accurate representation of what a framework should do and are expressed in language that avoids ambiguity.

The strategy begins with a framework-specific, generates configuration records, and provides a clear illustration of how a framework should be constructed. Execution is the process of creating a PC framework by a specified plan record and taking into account the environment in which the framework will operate. Before a final framework is given for use, the execution may be planned, often with an underlying framework that may be accepted and tested (Wilailak et al. 2019). The testing compares the implemented framework to the requirements given in the plan and generates an acknowledgment report or, more broadly, a list of errors and problems that call for an analysis of the testing, planning, and execution cycles to fix. Maintenance comprises handling adjustments to the requirements or the environment for execution, resolving bugs, or adapting the framework to new circumstances. Since maintenance involves examining the necessary advancements, planning a solution, and executing and testing that solution during a maintained programming framework, the cascade life cycle will be brought up again.

  1. Every vendor must supply at least one product.
  2. A single record in the Vendors table must be related to at least one record in the Products table.


A single Vendor may sell many products, so too many relationships.

Figure 10: The entity relationship diagram

(Source: Developed by self)

This Er model has 2 main entities-

  1. Vendor
  2. Product

This Er model has been transformed into a 3NF, and each entity and each of its characteristics is listed in tabular form along with the data types for each one. The primary key is designated as PK, and the foreign key is designated as FK.

Figure 11: The 3nf table

(Source: Developed by the developer)


After performing the entire work it has been concluded that the entire work has been considered one of the most important things. The detailed structure of all information has been perfectly elaborated in this report. The database has been one of the most important requirements that have been created in this report. All of the detailed information has been clearly described in this task. Six questions have been performed in this report and with the help of the information, all of the details have been perfectly done so that it becomes too easy to get the idea for further work.





Valacich, J. S., & George, J. F. (2022). Modern Systems Analysis and Design (2017, ). Pearson.

Malinova Mandelburger, M., & Mendling, J. (2021). Cognitive diagram understanding and task performance in systems analysis and design. MIS Quarterly, 45(4), 2101-2157.

Siau, K., Woo, C., Story, V. C., Chiang, R. H., Chua, C. E., & Beard, J. W. (2022). Information Systems Analysis and Design: Past Revolutions, Present Challenges, and Future Research Directions. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 50(1), 33.

Kapoor, A., Kumar, P., & Mishra, R. (2021). Analysis and design of a passive spatial filter for sub-6 GHz 5G communication systems. Journal of Computational Electronics, 20(5), 1900-1915.

Donges, J. F., Lucht, W., Cornell, S. E., Heitzig, J., Barfuss, W., Lade, S. J., & Schlüter, M. (2021). Taxonomies for structuring models for World–Earth systems analysis of the Anthropocene: subsystems, their interactions and social–ecological feedback loops. Earth System Dynamics, 12(4), 1115-1137.

Lin, K., Zhou, Z., Wang, Y., Law, C. K., & Yang, B. (2022). Using active subspace-based similarity analysis for design of combustion experiments. In Proc. Combust. Inst (Vol. 39).

Rahim, A., & Malik, P. K. (2021). Analysis and design of fractal antenna for efficient communication network in vehicular model. Sustainable Computing: Informatics and Systems, 31, 100586.

Roy, T., & Matsagar, V. (2021). Multi-hazard analysis and design of structures: status and research trends. Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, 1-30.

Wilailak, S., Yoo, B. H., Kim, Y., & Lee, C. J. (2021). Parametric analysis and design optimization of wet SOx scrubber system in marine industry. Fuel, 304, 121369.

Duma, V. F., & Dimb, A. L. (2021). Exact scan patterns of rotational Risley prisms obtained with a graphical method: Multi-Parameter analysis and design. Applied Sciences, 11(18), 8451.

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