Skip to content














Table of Contents

Question 1. 3

Question 2. 4

References. 7




Question 1

Cryptography has been considered as the effective information that has been made for understanding and giving proper security to the information. This is mainly used as an appropriate and accurate technique that has been applied effectively for securing the data and some calculation which has been used as the rule-based that are created in the mathematical formulation. Substitution has been used as the technique where all the normal text has conversed to the chipper text that is useful in the helping of the text to understanding by this method in a concrete way. The substitution box has been used in a secure way for applying the method to convert the decimal by the understanding of the input column all target output has been given which has been used as the decimal to the binary conversation (Sikeridis et al. 2020). This has been organized in an accurate w tale in the form of matrixes this table has been properly given. By using this type of chipper all the relation of keys can be properly evaluated by giving the demonstration of each step that is required to convert a plain text to the chipper. There are three numbers that are converted into effective binary solutions.


  1. i) There is the substitution box, which has been given properly for calculating all the decimal numbers to binary by understanding all the substitutions.

Division     Remainder

14/2 = 7             0

7/2 = 3               1

3/2 = 1               1

After that, the last remainder is 1, for this calculation, all the effective implementation has been done, and from that 14 is converted to 1110. From the substitution table, this can be seen taht 1110 is from the input of (10, 00), where 10 is a row and 00 is the column.

  1. ii) 8 is in decimal which has been converted to binary and for taht, this can create some specific calculations as well as the following steps should be followed for understanding the substitution shipper for converting the number into binary.

Division     Remainder

8/2 = 4             0

4/2 = 2             0

2/2 = 1             0

From, this it can be seen the last remainder is 0, and for taht, the binary conversation number is 1000 and for that substitution table, this has been converted and put from the (00,01).

iii) The number 3 has been converted to the binary number by dividing it by 2 and the remainder gives the binary conversation of the number 3, which has been properly created by the effective calculation, and the values of the substitution table are also evaluated from this.

Division     Remainder

3/2 = 1             1

1/2 = 0             1

0/2 = 0             0

Now, from this accurate calculation, this can be seen the binary number 3 is 0011, which has been extracted from the input of (10,11). This is the input that is given to understand the binary transformation of numbers that are extracted. By giving this row and column input the binary number can be utilized from the specific decimal number (McLaren et al. 2019). The division has been used here for understanding the correct values of the binary.

Question 2

The bash script has been used here in the process of the implementation so that by using all these scriptings for evaluating the proper file. This is mainly used as the main as wella s the plain text which is fulfilled with various commands and all these commands are successfully created and the accurate result can get. This has been used in many araes for developing productivity by increasing the functionalities that are used in extracting files by using the commands. This has been implemented by the simple types of programming language and for that, the effective knowledge of programming used is not at all necessary (Crockett et al. 2019). All the commands taht have been used here give the proper outcome by converting it by reading the script and by using the execution task. The navigation has been properly created and this is the main part of the cryptography. All the command’s execution has been done by using the appropriate software application. There can be seen various technologies and open source tools have been used and here for the analysis and performing the scripting OpenSSL tool has been properly used in this implication. There are two files given and in that decimal numbers are given which have been perfectly designed in order to get the best outputs from the commands. The main purpose of this is to create the best application so that the correct file can be read with the hash values (Pereida Garcia, 2022). Openssl is one of the best applications which has been used and the private tools have been portrayed all the effective information has been gathered by running all in ubuntu by extracting all the values from those files and saving it to another file.

Figure 1: Opening folder

At first, by using ubuntu, the file of the zip can be extracted all the files within that can also be extracted. The proper size has been extracted from rainbow crack and all the files that are included in the hash file in order to get the accurate file k for the generation of hash.

Figure 2: Opening hash files

The opening of the hash file has been done where all .bin files there which containing hash values and this are properly evaluated and the data are encrypted and the scripting has been saved in the hash table for finding the best hash values from that file.


Figure 3: Downloading file into a new file

All the encryption has been properly saved y the use of encryption of data in the file. Through this, the determination of SHA1 values is properly created, and by the use of accurate segmentation, this algorithm has been applied here by using bash scripting (Duka, 2020).  Different types of hash values can be extracted from the five bin files by the use of useful commands.


Duka, M., 2020. ELLIPTIC-CURVE CRYPTOGRAPHY (ECC) AND ARGON2 ALGORITHM IN PHP USING OPENSSL AND SODIUM LIBRARIES. Informatyka, Automatyka, Pomiary w Gospodarce i Ochronie Środowiska, 10(3), pp.91-94.

Crockett, E., Paquin, C. and Stebila, D., 2019. Prototyping post-quantum and hybrid key exchange and authentication in TLS and SSH. Cryptology ePrint Archive.

Pereida Garcia, C., 2022. Side-Channel Analysis and Cryptography Engineering: Getting OpenSSL Closer to Constant-Time.

Pereida Garcia, C., 2022. Side-Channel Analysis and Cryptography Engineering: Getting OpenSSL Closer to Constant-Time.

McLaren, P., Buchanan, W.J., Russell, G. and Tan, Z., 2019. Deriving ChaCha20 key streams from targeted memory analysis. Journal of Information Security and Applications, 48, p.102372.

Sikeridis, D., Kampanakis, P. and Devetsikiotis, M., 2020, November. Assessing the overhead of post-quantum cryptography in TLS 1.3 and SSH. In Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on emerging Networking EXperiments and Technologies (pp. 149-156).




Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *