Intended Module Learning Outcomes
Table of Contents
Unilever is one of the largest brands that manufacture home care products, beauty, and personal care products, refreshments, and food products. It was founded on 2 September 1929 that was established by the Lever brothers and The Dutch margarine Unie. In the 20th Century, the company expanded itself worldwide. To run such a big organization and maintain its management it is very important for a leader to possess good and effective leadership. In this report, the major part is covered through the Leadership, effective leadership and its management skills also.
Leadership refers to a process through which an executive can guide, direct, influence others’ work, and influence the behaviour of others by moulding their interest toward the accomplishment of goals that have to be achieved in any situation. It refers to the ability of a manager to induce and manage the subordinates and motivate them toward work.
It is a concept that has to be put into operation by individuals in their professional and personal life.
To maintain and implement this concept in a manner that is worthwhile and effective the person has to deeply understand and acquire the knowledge related to the significance of leadership. When a leader is working with their subordinates then he needs to include some traits like ethical behaviour, and morality and lead to the well-being of the person.
The leader should always be aware of the approaches and measures that can be used to cope with the changes happening in the organization. Therefore, the individuals that are involved in the leadership need to possess an effective understanding of the topic.
- Effective leadership
Effective leadership deals with the execution of the vision that is connected with the company that can be improved or redefined. It deals with setting the culture and tone for the organization he/she is serving. Leadership means securing resources, planning and creating, and looking for ways that can help in removing errors that can affect the work.
Leadership within Unilever is very effective. Effectiveness of leadership can be defined as the ability of a leader to influence effectively the followers and other stakeholders of the organization so that it will become easy for the organization to reach its organizational goals. In leadership, effectiveness plays a vital role because it provides confidence to the employees within Unilever and it also encourages a positive and professional environment. To critically reflect on the leadership an initiative can be taken, and employees can be taught to learn from mistakes, and enhance their decision-making and problem-solving skills. The leadership style which is followed by Unilever is the LGP. It helps in controlling and managing its human resources.
In this report, some of the topics are evaluated which play a vital role in achieving Unilever’s goals and objectives. These topics are-
Leadership is very much like other summaries concepts like freedom, democracy etc. It is the method of influencing individuals for obtaining a common objective. It is also known as the system whereby all leaders influence their followers and their followers influence their leaders. Leadership is particularly classified as laissez-faire, democratic or autocratic. Leadership is a dynamic and complex subject that is influenced and encompassed by various variables i.e. leaders expect a range of roles and also these roles have implications on many factors that impact them. This complexity accounted mainly for the deficiency of the inclusive understanding of entire elements of effective or good leadership. As described earlier, leadership is the dynamic and complex relationship based on mainly “mutual effect and common resolution between collaborators and leaders in which particularly both are stimulated to greater levels of development of moral and motivation as they affect others through various actions for accomplishing the objective (Silva, 2014).
The leader in Unilever organization is the individual who particularly implements intentional rights over many individuals for guiding the actions mainly towards the achievement of mutual objectives that frequently needs mutual assisting actions among all members of the particular group. In the setting of Unilever Company, the leaders are required to consult and communicate with their followers on daily basis and significantly at a similar time, proactively listen and regulate them towards efficiency and success. Leaders must be reliable in decision-making with their subordinates and followers and the organization also. Also, leaders must be capable of predicting drawbacks and problems before the unfolding of the events. The successful leader must be capable of balancing various variables while assembling the resources of the organization in chase of common goals. They additionally confirm that accomplishing such goals needs the alliance of determination for particularly both followers and leaders. Meanwhile, obtaining balance mainly does not essentially depend on the growth of the particular leadership style or trait, but, more on the capability of the leader for analyzing the condition and adopting the decision and approach of leadership that assemble all followers (Silva, 2014).
Power is the capability of influencing the attitude of other individuals without or with the struggle by utilizing the different methods for prompting or pushing action. Power is the capability of getting all things completed. Individuals with power are capable of influencing others’ nature and behaviour for achieving the objective or goals. Other individuals might struggle in making attempts for making them do particular things, however, an effective and smart leader is capable of overcoming that struggle. Although an individual might regard authorities and powers as corrupt or evil, power is the element of structural life and in mainly itself is neither bad nor good. Leaders could utilize their powers for benefiting others or for constraining them, for serving the goals of the organization (Arena, et al., 2017).
Another manner for viewing power is as the particular resource that individuals utilize in their relationships. When leader implicates their subordinates, it is particularly known as descending power. However, subordinates could also implement ascending power by accurately trying to impact the particular decisions of the leader. Certainly, a leader mainly depends on their followers and teams for getting all things completed (Arena, et al., 2017).
As leadership is described as the act of the individual implicating others to attaining their objectives, followers might be less dedicated to the team if their leaders mainly disbelief in their decisions. However, leaders are not particular individuals, they mainly don’t require having accurate stuff and this particular stuff is not correspondingly present in entire individuals. Leadership is an unrelenting and demanding job and it may be the intense disfavour to leaders for recommending that they are common individuals in the main territory of leadership the people do matter. As mainly with decision making and entire other challenges and issues of the organization, overcoming all types of little deficits could assist leaders in becoming more successful and dynamic in their enterprises and also in the community. Both managers and leaders should be knowledgeable and aware of the accurate and best ways allied to making effective decisions of leadership in Unilever Company (Velasquez and Hester, 2013).
They are required to know that any kind of decision they take has significance. All these decisions impact their followers either negatively or positively and also the whole organization. The growth of the organization relies on the decisions made by its leaders. Therefore, accurate decisions assist in successful and effective business operations. The decision has mainly three elements and these include objective, options to achieve that objective and then selecting the best option (Velasquez and Hester, 2013).
Ultimately, the procedure of making relevant decisions that could assist managers and leaders in Unilever Company in solving issues includes the given steps:
- Describing the issue
- Making alternatives
- Assessing the alternatives
- Making the relevant decision
- Executing the solution
- Monitoring the solution (Cooper and Mo, 2013).
Making accurate decisions is an important activity and function of leadership. The steps that are given above are important techniques of decision-making that are designed for aiding managers and leaders in Unilever Company in making accurate decisions in the organization, professional and personal life. All these steps assist managers and leaders in mapping out the potential significance of all decisions and also balancing various aspects, and selecting the best actions for taking in their operations of the business. Good leaders and excellent staff in each business must be implicated in their decisions and policies by operating together for attaining strategic objectives and goals. The vibrant nature of the business mainly specifies that accurate decision-making and leadership in the organization should be managers and leaders that regulate outcomes by knowing all their success criteria and the intrinsic risk of every alternative (Cooper and Mo, 2013).
Decision-making in every business is hard and most stimulating among management and leadership of the organization. Also, it is very complex to discover the outstanding approach and method, how relevant decisions are taken by various leaders and how it particularly works in the setting of an organization. Individuals make various decisions about various things under distinct situations or circumstances. Leadership decision-making is the act to be responsible and accountable for the challenges and matters of the organization by mainly all their leaders. It needs motivation, self-discipline, energy, capability, skill, knowledge, and maturity on the side of the main leader. In the decision-making of an organization, effective leaders give an encouraging working environment for perking up the efficiency and performance of all followers. The key purpose of leadership decision-making is always for making challenges, issues or matters in the Unilever Company right, transparent, clear, justifiable, efficient, accommodating, credible and trustworthy for the entire that is included in Unilever Company for accepting and be very comfortable mainly within their location of work. In actuality, tasks and performances of workers’ achievement regularly centre on which range they are involved and recognized in the decision-making process of the organization (Kaczmarek, 2017).
An organization that is serious regarding leadership development makes it a way of the life. Leading, coaching, and motivating plays a vital role in the organization. Today, command and control leadership is viewed as no longer the preferred method of managing people. It is proven that managers who adopt a coaching mind-set and approach can increase employee motivation and performance levels and boost their satisfaction with their job and management. Therefore, a great manager must also possess the ability and desire to develop the skills and knowledge of the people around them. to understand the importance of leading, coaching, and motivation it is important to understand its actual meaning. The leadership team of Unilever drives the organization, guides the organizational strategy, and leads the people (Gandolfi, and Stone, 2018).
The leading- team which are strong have ethical leaders who lead by example. In the future, this kind of leader shines a light on the path ahead. This leader effectively leads the members of the team. They also guide employees on how failure can be handled and what behaviour they can have. In return, employees of the organization mirror the behaviour of their leaders. Employees walk in their leader’s footsteps, learn from their mistakes, and can provide contributions to their ideas.
In the business environment coaching is one of the methods of training. In this training more skills and experienced individuals provides guidance and advice to an employee who is intended to help in developing the performance, individual skills, and career. Mentoring and counselling are HR competencies (steps in progressive discipline) that are similar to coaching. A coaching approach may be one method to develop managers, but its application goes beyond management training. It is a highly individualized process that depends on the coach’s skills, knowledge, abilities, and client nature. However, there are various techniques that are well recognized and tools which are used for drawing on it almost any situation of coaching (Huagie, 2018).
Unilever has recognized the various purposes and coaching benefits. The field of coaching has increased very much nowadays and some organizations are working actively so that their organizational culture of coaching can be formed. Coaching cultures within organizations encompass more than just formal coaching; they are cultures that emphasize coaching behaviours for communicating, managing, & influencing others. It is also an environment that provides more importance to employees learning and development. Coaching must be approached similarly to any other strategic goal of the organization. To successfully execute the coaching within the organization, it needs the commitment from the business and the person who needs coaching; a plan is prepared to get the results, qualified coaches & follow-up evaluation (Shaturaev, and Bekimbetova, 2021).
- Importance of leading and coaching
Within the organization provides, coaching and leadership are very important. It helps to improve the performance, skills of employees are also developed and are helpful to employees to understand the role of their respective goals within the organization. When the employees are well aware of what they have to do and why they are doing then it will help them to perform better and they can also perform at a high level. There are several times when the employees look good on the paper and even they also perform very well in an interview by they are not performing as expected from them. Providing coaching to employees helps them to start thinking according to the goals of the organization. it also helps in creating a stronger bond of team and it also establishes open and honest feedback and communication within the organization (Shaturaev, and Bekimbetova, 2021).
For effective leadership, it is important for the leader to have motivating skills. Motivation is the commitment level, innovation, and energy that Unilever’s staff members hold during working hours. For many organization improving and maintaining the workplace, motivation can be a really big issue, as each task performed by the employees are not interesting. So to perform such tasks Unilever must find a way to keep the employees motivated and engaged. To the organization, motivated employees are the organization’s assets, these kinds of employees are proportional directly to the success of the organization. Therefore, the motivation of employees is intangible, so it is quite difficult to measure the employee’s motivation, and it is very difficult to control it but if it is done right then it is simple to facilitate it. It is all regarding intensity, intention, and perseverance (Williamson, et al., 2022).
There are various types of employee motivation-
Intrinsic motivation- means an individual is motivated from the inside. They are having the desire to perform well at the organization because the result of the organization is according to the employee’s belief system. Thus, the deep-seated beliefs of an individual are usually its most powerful motivators the qualities that these individuals exhibit are acceptance, honour, desire, and curiosity for success.
Extrinsic motivation –means the individual is motivated through external factors like recognition and rewards. Some employees are there are not internally motivated and to get the task done, only external motivation is helpful for them (Zheng, et al., 2022).
- Importance of motivation
Motivation plays a vital role in the organization and the individual life. Motivated employees are driven, and enthusiastic, and in there they take pride. Tasks are accomplished quickly, actions are also taken quickly and motivated employees also want to give their best in task completion. Motivated employee provides higher productivity, more innovation takes place within the organization, it reduces the absenteeism level and turnover of staff also decreases. To motivate the employee organizations can focus on intrinsic rewards, flexibility can also be provided within the organization, a nice environment for work can also be created, career pathing can also be done and employee stratification and motivation surveys can also be conducted (Forest, et al., 2018).
To understand this concept of effective leadership an individual first needs to understand it by analysing its concepts deeply. So, to serve this purpose an individual should understand various leadership styles and study theories related to them.
2.3. Evaluation of Leadership styles and theories
Different styles are needed to tackle different situations and a great leader should know when to apply a particular approach.
Leadership strategies are used to define the leadership style of an individual. An individual adopts these leadership styles so that they can achieve the objectives and goals of the organization.
There are various types of leadership styles:
4) Democratic (Sethuraman and Suresh, 2014).
- Autocratic Leadership Style:
This style is based on the classical approach. In this style, the manager possesses the same power as that decision-making authority possesses.
In this type of leadership style, the manager does not consult anything with the staff and does not even allow them to put their inputs forward.
The staff that is working under such a leader is expected to obey all the orders without getting any explanation on the particular subject.
Characteristics of an Autocratic leader:
1) They are generally criticized by everyone.
2) They are highly resistant.
3) They do not trust their staff easily
4) they use the method of punishment and threats for influencing the staff members.
5) They do not allow their employees for giving any input (Sethuraman and Suresh, 2014).
Should not be used under circumstances like
1) When the staff becomes fearful, resentful, and tense.
2) When the employees depend on their manager to take all the decisions for them.
3) At a time when there is low morale, work stoppage, and high turnover.
Should be used in the circumstances like:
1) When the employees stop responding to other leadership styles.
2) When the time is limited and the decision has to be made.
3) When the employees challenge the power of the manager
4) When there is a need to coordinate work with another organization or department.
5) When there is a need to provide supervision that is effective.
6) At the time when the staff is untrained and they do not know what kind of procedure they need to follow.
- Bureaucratic Leadership style
- They are the one who manages with the help of a book.
- They do everything according to the policies and procedures
- This type of leadership is most effective when:
- When the staff needs to understand procedures and standards.
- When there is a need to conduct security and safety training
- When staff needs to perform tasks that need cash handling.
- This type of leadership is most effective when:
- When the employees lose interest in their co-workers and jobs.
- When the employees do the task that is only expected to be completed and nothing else.
- Democratic Leadership Style :
It refers to the leadership style that encourages employees to participate in the decision-making (Nanjundeswaraswamy and Swamy, 2014).
- They regularly keep updating their staff about the factors that affect their work.
- Should not work in the conditions like:
- When there is no time to take the input of everyone.
- When the manager himself feels threatened for using this leadership style.
- It is most effective when:
- It can be very successful when used with experienced staff or skilled staff.
- And when there is a need to implement operational changes.
- Laissez- Faire Leadership Style:
In this type of leadership style, the manager provides negligible direction to the employees and gives them a lot of freedom.
Power and authority are given to the employees, they themselves frame their decisions and goals (Nanjundeswaraswamy and Swamy, 2014).
It should be used when:
- The employees are experienced, skilled, and highly educated.
- When the employees are experienced and trustworthy.
- It should not be used when:
- Managers do not have time to provide feedback to the employees.
- When the employees feel a sense of discomfort when the manager is not available.
1) Trait Theory (Nawaz and Khan, 2016).
According to this theory, leadership says that some people possess some innate and inborn qualities and characteristics that make a person a leader. These qualities are physical factors, intelligence, personality, etc.
2) Situational Leadership
According to this theory of leadership, there is no leadership style that can be said the best. Leader adopts these styles according to their needs, situation, and level of development of their employees. This theory states that this method is best because in it the leader adjusts their style according to the need of the employees and sets a balance that is beneficial for the company.
3) Contingency Theory
According to this theory, it is supposed that the effectiveness of a leader is contingent it depends on how the style of the leader can match the specific situation or setting. It was developed by Fred Fiedler. This theory helped to expand the understanding approach of leadership because it focuses on adopting the leadership style that suits the best according to its situation and demand.
4) Transformational leadership theory (Nawaz and Khan, 2016).
It is given by James MacGregor Burns.
It is basically a model of leadership that deals with the encouragement of employees to make them realize the overall success of the team. According to this theory, a team can align themselves in order to accomplish the common purpose and vision by raising their self-confidence and morale.
There are generally four types of transformational factors:
Idealized influence, Intellectual stimulation, inspirational motivation, and individual consideration.
5) Transactional Leadership theory
This theory is developed by a sociologist named Max Weber and then it was further described by Bernard Bass.
According to this theory, managers provide something to the employees with the intention of getting something from an employee.
This theory states that employees are never self-motivated they require instructions, monitoring, and structure so that they can complete their tasks on time with accuracy.
6) Behavioural theories of leadership
This theory is based on the behaviour of the leader that focuses on how they behave and think that these are the traits that can be copied by different leaders. It is also known as style theory.
According to it, nobody is born as a successful leader they are created on the basis of their learnable behaviour.
According to this theory, there are four leadership styles:
Supportive leadership, Achievement oriented leadership, directive leadership, and participative leadership.
Some behavioural theories are:
Theory of self-efficacy, Theory of reasoned action, model based on multi-attribute utility.
Leadership is the most crucial factor in Unilever Company as it deals with many people. It is very complex to direct and regulate individuals. For mainly this particular decision, the very essential thing in the process of leadership is the capability of the particular leader to be of accurate conduct for having good relations with his juniors and also win their hearts. This could lead to the very effective delivery of service and also work with the best interest and also love for obtaining the set objective. This is mainly what significantly operates in Unilever Company, so, the findings recommend that the sole leaders and administrators treat their followers with dignity, by communicating with them, respecting their opinions and also accepting particularly makes all of them feel that are also part of the process of decision making and this particular make them feel intellect of belonging and also establish interests mainly towards the organization and also see the aims and goals of the organization as the cooperative one to be mainly attained together (Kaczmarek, 2017).
It has been concluded at the end of the report that effective leadership is very important for Unilever. The leaders of the organization must have effective leadership styles. Some of the leadership styles include the people, oriented leader, task-oriented leader, status quo leader, country club leader, dictatorial leader and there are many more. Each organization needs a good leader to the successful. For effective practices for business, good leaders are a crucial part. And most importantly, good leadership in an organization does not come inherently. A good leader must have high moral standards and strong ethics, they must have great self-organized skills and they are also efficient learners. There are various theories of leadership (Gandolfi, and Stone, 2018) that must be known by the leaders like the behavioural theory, contingency theory, great man theory, management theory, participative theory, power theory, and relationship theory. It is also important for the organization to provide coaching whenever employees need it. They also need to be motivated on timely bases. Various rewards and incentives can also be provided to the employee it also helps them to motivate. Motivated employees are the best for the growth and success of the organization. So they must be motivated regularly. Leadership, power, and decision-making can also hinder or facilitate the execution of goals, overall effectiveness, and job satisfaction. For leadership and effective management, effective decision-making is important for Unilever (Manganelli, et al., 2018).
A personal development plan refers to an action plan that can be used to identify the goals of the individual and demonstrates what an individual wants to achieve. It indicates the strengths and weaknesses of an individual. It helps to identify the areas that are needed to be developed and improve so that an individual can meet their goals.
It serves as a guideline for the success of the future.
It is a process that helps to improve oneself by identifying conscious activities and habits. It helps to enhance the quality of personal as well as professional life through which an individual can achieve his/her aspirations or dreams.
There are four things that are considered in a personal development plan:
- Clear Visions
- Areas for improvement and identified strengths
- Building a personal development plan
- Reviewing and adapting it.
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