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Intended Module Learning Outcomes


Intended Module Learning Outcomes


Table of Contents

1 Introduction. 3

2 Evaluation of Leadership Styles and Theories: 4

2.1 Leadership Styles. 4

2.2 Leadership Theories: 7

3 Evaluation of Leading, coaching, and motivating. 9

3.1 Leading and coaching. 9

3.2 Leadership and motivation. 10

4 Men and women in leadership roles. 12

4.1 Representation of Men and Women in Leadership Role. 12

4.2 Comparison of the leadership style of men and women. 12

5 Recommendations for improvement. 14

6 Conclusion. 16

Appendix. 17

7 Personal development plan: 17

References. 18






1 Introduction

Cadbury is a Multinational confectionery company that is owned by Mondelez International.

It was established by John Cadbury in 1824 in Birmingham, England. It stands in second place in terms of confectionery brands after Mars.

It is headquartered in Buckinghamshire and it operates in 50+ countries. It is famous for its products like creme egg, Dairy Milk Chocolate, and Roses selection box.

Cadbury was presented with its Royal Warrant in 1854 from Queen Victoria.

It is definitely a very renowned company, so to maintain its operation it is the responsibility of the Manager that he/she should possess such skills so that the working of the company remains smooth and unaffected in a negative way.

To maintain this kind of quality it is definitely important for the Leader to possess some effective skills. And that is Effective Leadership skills.

  • Leadership

It is said to be the ability of a group or an individual that guides and influences other members and followers of an organization.

Leadership refers to a management function that helps to direct the resources that belong to a particular organization to improve their working efficiency and helps in goal achievement.

Generally, it is a trait of an effective leader to guide and motivate the organization, provide them with the purpose clarity and make them realize their mission.

The basic characteristics of a great leader are:

Delegation, Self-awareness, Empathy, Integrity, good communication, gratitude, and great learning Agility.



  • Effective Leadership Skills

Leadership skills are referred to as the abilities and strengths that are demonstrated by the individuals which help them to guide initiatives, oversee processes, and steer staff members towards their goals (Yukl, 2012).

Leaders that are effective have the ability to communicate effectively, delegate and handle responsibilities properly, the capability of maintaining a positive environment and possess flexibility that helps to tackle problems that arise in the workplace and possess ethical leadership.

To become a good leader, it is very important for an individual to understand its depth and should possess the knowledge of different leadership styles, understand that it is very important to acknowledge different types of leadership styles and theories(Yukl,2012).

2 Evaluations of Leadership Styles and Theories:

2.1 Leadership Styles

Leadership styles vary from an approach that is classical to a participative and creative approach. A leader should understand when to vary styles according to the need and situation so that he/she can exhibit a nice and particular approach (Sethuramanand Suresh, 2014).

  • There are four basic leadership styles andsome other leadership styles:

1) Autocratic Leadership Style:

It refers to a classical approach in which managers possess power as that of decision-making authority.

This type of leader always expects their staff to obey their orders without asking for any type of explanation. They never consult with their staff nor allow them to put their suggestions forward in any decision-making process (Sethuramanand Suresh, 2014).

Sometimes it is not good to use this leadership style as the effects can be adverse. It should not be used when the morale of the staff is already low or at the time when the employees are tensed and depend on their managers to take decisions for them.

2) Democratic Leadership Style:

It is also known as the participative leadership style. They generally encourage the staff to participate in the decision-making process and keep them informed about everything or problem that is arising in the work. Provide employees with effective feedback and helps in problem-solving (Cote, 2017).

It is most effective at the time when there is a big problem and requires various inputs to solve the problem.

At the time when there is a need to build participation and encourage the team

3) Bureaucratic Leadership Style:

In this type of leadership style, the leader does everything according to the policies and procedures of the organization. Like to do everything strictly according to the laws

It should be used when the employees need to understand some policies and procedures of the organization, at the time when there is a need to provide security and safety training.

It is ineffective at the time when the staff loses interest in the co-workers and job(Cote, 2017).

T the time when the work habits do not break easily and especially when they are no longer of any use (Saeed, et al., 2014).

4) Laissez- Faire Leadership Style:

This type of leadership style is also known as the “Hands-off style”.

In this style, the manager gives no direction to the employees and gives them a lot of freedom.

In this leadership style, all the power and authority of the staff determine their own goals, resolve their own problems, and make their own decisions.

It can be used under circumstances when the staff is highly educated, experienced, and skilled.

The staffs are experienced and trustworthy.

Staff members are self-motivated toward their work.

  • Other Leadership styles

1) Transformational Leadership:

It creates and sustains context that helps to maximize organizational and human capabilities. It helps to align core values for the employees and bind them with a unified purpose.

It is a special leadership style that is associated with extremely powerful transformational leadership that is really hard to reach.

It focuses on making changes in others, groups, self, and organization

2) Transactional leadership:

It is a type of leadership style that emphasizes the things to get done within a timeframe.

It is the opposite of transformational leadership.

Generally used to practice in big bureaucratic organizations

3) Multicultural leadership:

It helps to foster the effectiveness of individuals and teams.

It focuses on driving innovation that can be done by leveraging the differences that are multicultural.

It helps to create an atmosphere in which a team can work hard due to mutual respect and understanding in the atmosphere (Gandolfi and Stone, 2018).

4) Bridging Leadership: this type of leadership is used for promoting processes related to multi-stakeholders for the purpose of addressing changes in social inequalities.

It is used to sustain and create relationships between the stakeholders who are needed to provide collective input in making any progress.



5) Creative Leadership:

It refers to the ability to realize and create solutions that are innovative, especially in a changing or complex situation. It refers to the people who look for new approaches to create purpose and clarity for their employees.

It helps the company by providing new methods of solving the problem and opening new opportunities that can be used to solve the problems of the team or organization (Gandolfi and Stone, 2018).

6) Pedagogical Leadership:

It is about supporting learning and teaching. It provides leadership that is instructional. It promotes the practice of learning by this the leader helps an employee to develop his personal and professional skills that help them to achieve their targeted goals.

It is useful at the time when the employees are new and need some assistance with their work.

7) Servant Leadership:

This term was given by Robert K.

It is based on the philosophy that great leaders believe that effective leaders strive for serving others, they do not believe in taking control or acquiring power. They primarily focus on the well-being and growth of the community, staff members, and people to which they belong (Saeed, et al., 2014).

2.2 Leadership Theories:

They are basically the explanation of why and how some people become leaders. These theories focus on the behaviour and trait that are adopted by people to enhance their leadership skills. Some of its top traits include high morals and strong ethics (Humphrey, 2013).

  • There are some theories that define leadership and they are as follows:

1) Trait Theories: According to this theory some people are born or innate with some characteristics and qualities that help someone in becoming a good leader. These traits include intelligence factors, physical factors, and personality factors.

2) Contingency theory: According to this theory effectiveness of a leader is its contingency and states how well the style adopted by the leader matches the situation. If the style matches the situation well then it is called a perfect match (Humphrey, 2013).

3) Situational theory: This theory is based on those leaders who do not possess only one style but adopt one according to the development level of employees and situation. It is one of the best ways of leading because in it a leader adapts style to fulfil the needs. And to provide a balance that is beneficial for the whole organization.

4) Transactional theory: According to it leadership is a style where executives use to relies on punishment and rewards in order to achieve their performance at the job.

5) Transformational theory: It is an approach in that changes the social and individual system. It helps to create positive and valuable changes that help a follower to become a leader.

6) Behavioural theory: It is a theory that focuses on the behavioural aspect of the leader and assumes that these are the traits that are copied by other leaders. This theory is also known as style theory, it suggests that nobody is born a leader but is created on the basis of his learnable behaviour.

It contains 4 types of behaviour:

1) Supportive leadership

2) Participative leadership

3) Directive leadership

4) Achievement-oriented leadership.




3 Evaluation of Leading, coaching, and motivating

3.1 Leading and coaching

Coaching and leadership are similar in many aspects because indirectly coaching is similar to leading and leading means coaching others. So, whatever they are termed as they are mentors in the context of an activity or organization.

Leading – It means having a vision for sharing with others. When there is a need to inspire the team, it becomes possible to share a common goal towards which a leader can direct the dedication and efforts of the entire staff (Anthony, 2017).

Coaching –It refers to the method based on training, instructing, and counselling group of people or individuals. It depicts how to enhance their overall performance or productivity and how to develop skills. In this process, the person who supervises is known as the coach while the learner is termed as the coachee.

The key difference between leading and coaching is that coaching deals with supporting and helping others and providing mentoring. It helps them to become the best version of themselves. While leading is about setting directions and creating a vision

A nice leader understands that there is a need to maximize the potential of each and every team member to make them capable of achieving their long terms goal. So, they arrange effective coaching for them so that the employees can focus on their positive transformation and guide them towards self-improvement (Anthony, 2017).

  • For the improvement of the employees, organizations arrange different types of coaching for them like-

1) Cognitive Coaching: It deals with addressing the maladaptive thoughts that get in the way of a leader’s success. In this method, the coach challenges the thinking process of a leader related to others’ actionsin a way that is non-productive and causes hindrance to their own performance (De Vries, 2014).

2) Systematic coaching: As its name implies systematic coaching takes into consideration thewide range of factors that their performance. It focuses on observing the patterns that are dragging the performance of leaders and disrupting them (Ladegard and Gjerde, 2014).

3) Adaptive coaching: It is generally goal-oriented in nature. It includes the aspects that are best approaches like cognitive, systematic, and positive.

4) Goal-oriented coaching: It is done to help the leaders for regulating their personal and interpersonal resources so that they can attain their goals. In it, the leader is assessed for forming well-crafted goals and developing an action plan that is effective (Ladegard and Gjerde, 2014).

5) Humanist Coaching: It helps leaders in attaining their full potential. In it, they undergo self-actualization so that they can focus on issues to attain success.

6) Model of positive psychology for coaching: It is a strength-based approach in which the coach helps the leader in expanding their strengths so that they can build happiness and positive emotions (De Vries, 2014).

3.2 Leadership and motivation

Providing motivation to the employees is an important task that is performed by a leader. It helps the employees to translate their motivation into skills and knowledge and translates their abilities into performance and efforts this is done after determining the intensity direction and duration of the behaviour that is related to the work (Nader, 2019).

The amount of effort that the workers put into their job is the result of the motivation provided by the leader.

Giving motivation to others is a difficult task that is performed by a leader. Feedback and goals, incentives, expectancy and beliefs, autonomy, and work design are all these job factors and personal factors play an important role in motivating the employees. The choices and preferences of every individual are different it is not compulsory that the individual get motivated for the same reason as other person so, the leader has to motivate the individual considering their own preferences and this is stated in the model of contemporary leadership.

Leaders try to enable and motivate the employees to secure success and effectiveness in the organisation(Nader, 2019).


There are various theories that have emerged from a range of choices that is broad they set four major prospective based on motivation and a comprehensive set of factors that are motivating Some of these theories are- theories of expectancy, goal-setting, self-determination, and job characteristics (Andersen, et al., 2018).

Rather than motivating employees directly, leaders benefit their employees by enabling them to motivate using structured questioning that is derived from motivational interviewing (Felfe and Schyns, 2014).

  • According to the theory of Self-determination
  1. a) Leaders should practice intrinsic motivation that is derived from enjoyment and interest taken from the task itself, it is related to the satisfaction of the employees with their jobs.
  2. b) It depends on the way in which the motivators are communicated and introduced during the conversation because it is somewhat critical to their effectiveness (Andersen, et al., 2018).

In this approach, the employees and leaders co-create with each other through motivating work. According to this, the leaders provide benefits to the employees by sharing their tasks and in return, the employees benefit their leaders by offering them connectedness and autonomy that comes due to such co-creation (Felfe and Schyns, 2014).

To maintain equality in the company it is necessary to treat everybody equally without any discrimination on the basis of age, gender, race, cultural background, etc.

To overcome the fact, we will discuss



4 Men and women in leadership roles

4.1 Representation of Men and Women in Leadership Role

Gender plays an important role in leadership and in determining the quality of service provided in the organization. It generally refers to the traits of women and men that can range according to the relationships roles and norms (Schuh, et al., 2014).

Even in the post-industrial areas and societies, corporate and political, and other places as a leader the highest level remains mainly with the male prerogative. Rather than this woman has gained some supervisory positions in middle management but women are rarely found in the places of top executives and leaders.

One of the main reasons for it is the mentality of the society as they like to spend less on training, investment, and education of women as compared to men.

  • According to the study it is observed that the women are engaged in their job in both ways
  1. e. democratic and interpersonally (Schuh, et al., 2014)
  • On the other hand, men possess both autocratic natures and are task-oriented.
  • Differences in human capital investments
  • On the basis of observation, it is noticed that the women are typically more mentoring, their style of coaching is more of the mentoring type that is received mostly in a profession that is dominated by the female. On the other hand,men are more controlling and commanding. And this type of nature is received in professions that are male-dominated (Merchant, 2012).
  • It is nowhere concluded that a working woman is less committed to their job or work as compared to men. It is concluded that both men and women subordinate and consider their post and rank it in the same way.
  • According to a presumption, women are less experienced than a man because they often leave their jobs due to personal issues.

4.2 Comparison of the leadership style of men and women

  • It has been observed that the no of women has increased in business management which is a positive outlook for society. According to a study it is observed that a team that has a mix of men and women achieves better results, and it is generally observed that the women belong more in the management. This is said to be the desirable trend as men are generally rational, and logical with some requisite toughness, while in that place the women are more sensitive, intuitive, and predisposed towards diplomacy and change. It is observed that men usually prefer working with things and women with people.
  • Female leaders depict great interpersonal skills whereas men excel in their performance in behaviour that is task oriented (Merchant, 2012).
  • The conclusion of this matter is that the gender of a leader or a manager affects their leadership style which states the difference in the style of leadership of men and women. Flexibility and efficiency that are based on gender are compared in the studies conducted by Murphy and Anderson, according to them there are no such differences found. It concluded that gender does not possess any fundamental difference effect on the style of leadership.
  • According to the studies conducted by Bartosova joint stock companies That havea large no. of women represented in the management perform financially better than the company that possesses less representation of women. Generally, the company’s owner that has a higher representation of women are assets as third higher than the companies who have a large no of male representatives.
  • Women as leader
  • Women possess some powerful agents that are required in change. Far-reaching benefits are derived from the gender and diversity parity in decision-making and leadership and are nowadays recognized in all spheres. But still, women are under-represented vastly in politics, communities, and business in the procedure of decision-making (Rhode, 2017).
  • Women as a leader
  • Gender diversity become a one-day goal
  • Set hiring goals that are well defined
  • Showcases women leaders in the organization (Rhode, 2017).



  • Men as a leader
  • Men leaders possess qualities like competitiveness, strength, risk-taking, and assertiveness. And they tend to possess a style that is controlling and commanding. According to a psychological association, men are more directive and task-oriented.
  • It was found in a study that women tend to adopt a participative style of leadership and serve as more transformational leaders as compared to men. But according to some studies they found that there is as such no significant difference found in their leadership style.
  • But somewhere Cadbury focuses on gender equality and assigns the tasks and roles to the employees that are based on their efficiency and not on gender. They manage to assign the task to the person who is capable of handling it so that the quality and reputation of the company can be maintained.

5 Recommendations for improvement

There are various ways that can improve the leadership effectiveness of the company

1) By ensuring clarity and visibility of goals

To improve leadership in the organization executives, managers and leaders should focus on providing visibility and clarity in the goals. The goal should be clear they must be smart and their orientation should also make sense. And they must be communicated with everyone to maintain visibility,

2) By creating a Culture feedback

Improving leadership depends on how the leader is open to improving him/herself. They should not only focus on up skilling and assessing their gaps but, they should also develop a culture of giving and taking feedback. It is also very important to give feedback to the employees so that by working on them they could achieve the goals of the organization with greater effectiveness.

3) By facilitating responsibility and accountability

To enhance effectiveness in leadership it is really important to practice responsibility and accountability.

Leaders should be encouraged to become responsible and accountable for their actions. The seniors should persuade leaders to work on improving their effectiveness as a leader if needed.

4) By continuously focusing on performance management

It is not only about influencing and inspiring the team members for following a manager or leader.

Improving effectiveness in leadership requires continuous focus on improving performance management.

When the manager and leader measure and track the performance of the employees and provide them with corrective measures and regular interventions it helps them to eliminate the challenges and risk involved in it which help them to develop and grow.

5) By building trust and transparency

To grow their teams, influence them, and guide them the leaders should trust and maintain transparency in the team. If the employees trust their leaders then they will give their 100% and work wholeheartedly.

6) By fostering a growth mindset

To improve effectiveness in leadership it is really important to foster a growth mindset.

When a leader communicates with their employees then they should focus on the development and growth of the employee that is done professionally and personally.

When they take strategic decisions, they should be aligned with the goals of the organization and should ensure that how it will contribute to the growth of the company.

7) By respecting differences and promoting inclusion

In an organization, it is generally we can see cultural diversity that differs in opinions, ideas, and perspectives. An effective leader should not consider these differences but should accept them accordingly and treat them equally. Leadersshould establish a culture based on inclusion. They should treat the employees on the basis of their work and not on the basis of culture.



6 Conclusion

  • At the end of the report, it is concluded that to run and manage such a big organization it is very important for the leader to possess a good leadership style and should adopt a leadership style that makes the work of employees and the organization much easier. It is concluded that no leadership style is perfect on its own rather than this by setting an example of a good leader he/she needs to adopt one that suits best according to the situation.
  • Good leaders should possess strong ethics, moral standards, self-organized skills, and creative and innovative approach and he/she should be efficient learners.
  • It is such an important part of the organization that there are various theories based on it. Some of these theories are trait theory, contingency theory, behavioural theory, situational theory, etc. A follower should read these theories in order t become a good and efficient leader.
  • One of the important aspects of effective leadership is coaching, leading, and motivation. A good leader leads their employees and helps them to achieve their targets and provides them with necessary coaching so that they can develop those traits that help them build their personality and knowledge through which they can achieve their personal and professional goals.
  • And to motivate them managers should reward and provide them incentives so that the employees work wholeheartedly and in return provide Cadbury with better results.
  • Rather than this a good leader never discriminates between employees on the basis of cultural diversity, age, race, and background they should treat the employees n the basis of their work.
  • And the organization should also provide the higher post in the companies on the basis of work and on the basis of gender. Because a good and efficient leader helps Cadbury in achieving its long and short-term goals and manages the working procedure of the company which plays a big role in maintaining the company’s reputation.







7 Personal development plan

It is also known as PDP. It is an action plan that can be used to identify the goals of an individual and make them realize what they want to achieve. It helps to indicate weaknesses and strengths. It helps to identify the improvement areas and help to identify the goals that are to be achieved.

A personal development plan includes Opportunities, strengths, weaknesses, and threats.

Elements of a personal development plan are:

1) Clear vision should be mentioned.

2) Understanding of skills should be mentioned.

3) Need to set clear ideas of the standard that are needed to be achieved.

4) Need to set the priority level for each area.












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Rhode, D.L., 2017. Women and leadership. Oxford University Press.

Gandolfi, F. and Stone, S., 2018. Leadership, leadership styles, and servant leadership. Journal of Management Research, 18(4), pp.261-269.







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