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HLTWHS002 Follow safe practices for direct client care


This unit requires that you complete 4 assessment tasks. You are required to complete all tasks to demonstrate competency in this unit.

Assessment Task About this task
Assessment Task 1: Written questions You must correctly answer all questions to show that you understand the knowledge required of this unit.
Assessment Task 2: Workplace Project – WHS inspection You are complete a work health and safety inspection of an area in your workplace.
Assessment Task 3: Workplace Project – WHS risk assessment You are to complete a WHS risk assessment.
Assessment Task 4: Workplace observations There are three parts to this assessment:

§  Part A: You are to locate and discuss your workplace’s organisational policies and procedures with your assessor.

§  Part B: You are to demonstrate the application of emergency response policies and procedures.

§  Part C: You are to demonstrate the application of infection control policies and procedures by cleaning up a ‘blood spill’.

Supporting resources

You may like to look at the following websites, books and documents for more information about the topics related to this unit:

  • Arnott, G 2011, The Disability Support Worker, Pearson Australia, Frenchs Forest, NSW.
  • Croft, H 2013, The Australian Carer 3rd edn, Pearson Australia, Frenchs Forest, NSW.

How to submit your assessments

When you have completed each assessment task you will need to submit it to your assessor.

Instructions about submission can be found at the beginning of each assessment task.

Assessment Task Cover Sheet

At the beginning of each task in this booklet, you will find an Assessment Task Cover Sheet. Please fill it in for each task, making sure you sign the student declaration.

Your assessor will give you feedback about how well you went in each task, and will write this on the back of the Task Cover Sheet.


The prerequisite for this unit is NIL.


The candidate must show evidence of the ability to complete tasks outlined in elements and performance criteria of this unit, manage tasks and manage contingencies in the context of the job role.

There must be demonstrated evidence that the candidate has completed the following tasks at least once in line with state/territory WHS regulations, relevant codes of practice and workplace procedures:

  • contributed to a workplace WHS meeting or inspection
  • conducted a workplace risk assessment and recorded the results
  • consistently applied workplace safety procedures in the day-to-day work activities required by the job role, including:
  • infection control
  • hazardous manual tasks
  • use of personal protective equipment
  • reporting incidents
  • followed workplace procedures for at least one simulated emergency situation


The candidate must demonstrate knowledge of:

  • state/territory legislation and how it impacts on workplace regulations, codes of practice and industry standards, including:
  • state/territory WHS authorities
  • rights and responsibilities of employers and workers, including duty of care
  • hazardous manual tasks
  • infection control
  • safety symbols and their meanings, including signs for:
  • poisons
  • emergency equipment
  • personal protective equipment (PPE)
  • specific hazards such as sharps, radiation
  • hazard identification, including:
  • definition of a hazard
  • common workplace hazards relevant to the industry setting including hazardous manual tasks, infection control risks and personal safety risks
  • workplace procedures for hazard identification
  • strategies minimising risk
  • safety considerations when working in a home-based environment, including:
  • rights and responsibilities of workers and clients
  • basic home fire safety including high-risk groups, behaviour that contributes to fire injury and fatalities, and smoke alarm placement, installation and maintenance.
  • risks to personal safety
  • common sources of infection and means to minimise transfer of infectious diseases
  • fundamentals of the muscoskeletal system and practices to minimise injury to self and clients
  • workplace emergency procedures
  • workplace policies and procedures for WHS

For all documentation on the performance criteria and assessment requirements of the unit HLTWHS002 Follow safe work practices for direct client care, please refer to the website with this link:


Students: Please fill out this cover sheet clearly and accurately for this task.

Student Name  
Assessor Name  
Unit: HLTWHS002 Follow safe practices for direct client care
Assessment Details
Assessment Type   Written/Oral questions
Agreement by the student
Read through the assessments in this booklet before you fill out and sign the agreement below. Make sure you sign this before you start any of your assessments.
Have you read and understood what is required of you in terms of assessment?     Yes     No
Do you understand the requirements of this assessment?     Yes     No
Do you agree to the way in which you are being assessed?     Yes     No
Do you have any special needs or considerations to be made for this assessment?  If yes, what are they?  …………………………… ………………………… ………………… ……… … … .………………………………………….     Yes     No
Do you understand your rights to appeal the decisions made in an assessment?     Yes     No
None of this work has been completed by any other person.     Yes     No
I have not cheated or plagiarised the work or colluded with any other student/s.     Yes     No
I have correctly referenced all resources and reference texts to complete these assessment tasks.     Yes     No
I understand that if I am found to be in breach of policy, disciplinary action may be taken against me.     Yes     No


I,____________________________________________________ ,  certify that the statements I have attested above have been made in a good faith, are true and correct. To the best of my knowledge and belief, these tasks are my own work.

Student Signature: ……………………………                                                       Date: …………… /……………../……………………………..


Result – Attempt 1 Satisfactory (S)    Not Yet Satisfactory (NYS)   

ASSESSOR FEEDBACK (Assessment Task 1)

Assessors: Please return this cover sheet to the student with assessment results and feedback.

 Assessor signature:                                                               Date: 

Re-assessment Result

(if NYS in Attempt 1)

Satisfactory (S)    Not Yet Satisfactory (NYS)    

ASSESSOR FEEDBACK – Attempt 2 (Assessment Task 1)

Assessors: Please return this cover sheet to the student with assessment results and feedback.

Assessor signature:                                                               Date:

Re-assessment Result

(if NYS in Attempt 2)

Satisfactory (S)    Not Yet Satisfactory (NYS)   

ASSESSOR FEEDBACK – Attempt 3 (Assessment Task 1)

Assessors: Please return this cover sheet to the student with assessment results and feedback.

Assessor signature:                                                               Date:


I declare that I have conducted a fair, valid, reliable and flexible assessment with this student, and I have observed the student demonstrate unit outcomes through consistent and repeated application of skills and knowledge over a period of time and provided appropriate feedback.




Fill in the declaration below if you have received a not yet satisfactory (NYS) in all three attempts.

You can make an appeal about an assessment decision by putting it in writing and sending it to us. Refer to your Student Handbook for more information about our appeals process.

 I have received my assessment result and I am satisfied with the given feedback for this assessment.

 I am not satisfied about my result and I would like to appeal regarding my result.

Student Signature: ……………………………                   Date: ……… /………../………………


Task summary:

§  This is an open book test – you can use the Internet, textbooks and other documents to help you with your answers if required.

§  You must answer all questions correctly.

§  Write your answers in the space provided.

§  If you need more space, you can use extra paper. All extra pieces of paper must include your name and the question number/s you are answering.

§  You may like to use a computer to type your answers. Your assessor will tell you if you can email them the file or if you need to print a hard copy and submit it.

§  Please ensure that your answers are in your own words and are not a direct copy from any other source such as the learner guide or websites.

What do I need in order to complete this assessment?

  • Access to textbooks and other learning materials.
  • Access to a computer and the Internet (if you prefer to type your answers).

When do I do this task?

  • You will do this task in your own time.

what do I need to do if I get something wrong?

If your assessor marks any of your answers as incorrect, they will talk to you about resubmission. You will need to do one of the following:

  • Answer the questions that were incorrect in writing.
  • Answer the questions that were incorrect verbally.

Question 1

  1. What is the definition of a hazard?
A hazard in the workplace can be anything that holds enough potential to harm or hurt a person. Hazard has the potential to harm the safety and health care of humans or damage the machinery or equipment. Hazard has a risk to cause property damage and it also causes injury to a person (Ahmad, et al., 2016).
  1. Which of the following are hazards? Tick the correct answers
Is this a hazard? Tick each correct answer
Working with clients in their homes Yes
A strained back Yes
Workplace procedure for manual handling yes
Showering client yes
Lifting a box yes
Working long hours yes
Stress Yes
  1. What could be the consequence if you did not correctly follow your workplace’s policies and procedures in the following areas? Provide one consequence for each.
  • Hazard management
If workers or employees are not following policies and procedures correctly in the workplace it would create problems it can occur management problems a company can face liability and loss and hazard management also occurs safety and health loss while working. Hazard management can lead to damage to equipment and injuries. One consequence of hazard management can occur an undesired event such as accidents or mismanagement.
  • Care plans
If employees are not following health and safety policies and procedures it can occur accidents and harm to a person while working. Hazards in care plans can also lead to health issues and may create a risk to lives. the consequence of hazards in the care plan can occur serious problems such as injury, and illness and it also can occur the death of a person.
  • Manual handling
Manual handling includes activities such as lifting weights of products, using hand tools, and operating machines if policies and procedures would not follow in the workplace manual handling can face some consequences such as back injuries while lifting weights, and also leads to minor accidents while operating machines.
  • Using mobility equipment
Using mobility equipment are designed for people who face problem in moving or walking if policies and procedures are not followed properly in the workplace using mobility equipment can lead to serious consequences such as it can increase the risk of falling and get serious injury.
  • Using personal protection equipment
Personal protecting equipment’s used to protect ourselves while working from harmful chemicals, physical, and electrical. If policies and procedures in the workplace it can lead to some consequences such as harm by chemical reactions to workers. It is important to follow the procedure for personal protective equipment.
  • Duress alarm system
The consequences of a duress alarm system if it is not used properly it can fail to alert of an emergency and it can increase the risk to harm a person if policies and procedures do not follow properly and if employees dost not get trained to use duress alarm system it can harm and increases injury risk.
  • Emergency procedures
If Emergency procedures do not use correctly it can increase the risk of getting injured employees it can also occur loss or death and if an emergency procedure does not follow properly it can damage the property and machines of the workplace. It is necessary to follow all the emergency procedures properly.

  • Incident procedures
Incident procedures are designed to manage unexpected situations such as accidents, and damages but if an incident procedure does not follow correctly it may have consequences such as can increase risk of harm by accidents failure to follow incident instructions can also occur financial loss, property damages, machinery damage, etc.
  • Infection control
The consequences of infection control can occur in the spread of infections which can be very harmful because infections can spread very easily an infection can increase accidents by infections if infection spread in I workplace it can reduce the productivity of work. It is very important to follow the procedure of infection control because it can easily affect other employees.

Question 2

  1. List six things you would check when you are doing a fire safety check on a client’s home.
1. The first thing that is important in fire safety is installing a smoking detector alarm.


2. One of the most important things for fire safety is to check carbon dioxide detectors for fire safety is very important.
3. Setting up a fire hydrant for big fire hazards helps to supply water by which fire can be stopped.
4. Fire escape ladders are a safe way to escape from fire.
5. Checking kitchen appliances for safety purposes.
6. Checking all the alarms every month for safety purposes.
7. Installing fire protection equipment is the most important part of fire safety such as fire extinguishers & blankets.
8. Regularly checking up on electrical appliances is also a major part of fire safety.

  1. What groups of people are at higher risk for fire injury or fatalities? Explain what types of behaviors these people engage in that make them a higher risk? Provide 2 examples.
Children under 5 years of age and elders over 65 are the two major groups of people who are at higher risk for fire injury and fatalities. The child under five years does not know about the fire that it can harm elders over 65 years of age and reduced mobility it can be one of the main reasons that they can engage themselves in a fire. Two examples are children under 5 years of age playing with spray paints that hold chemicals to catch fire and elders over 65 years have a hearing problem sometimes so they cannot hear fire alarms and engage themselves in a fire.

Question 3

a)       You notice that a box of rubbish has been left in the corridor again.

You nearly tripped over a similar box last week and you moved it outside to the rubbish bin – where it should have been placed.

Now someone has done the same thing again!

Why is it important that you report this particular hazard, rather than just moving it out to the bin like you did last time?

Reporting hazard is very important rather than moving them to ensure that particular hazards will not happen again such as a box of rubbish has been left in the corridor repetitively which is wrong and should not be placed in the corridor it can lead to infection which can harm people. Sometimes ignoring a hazard and not reporting a hazard can occur accidents and harm a person for preventing accidents or illness and accidents it is very to report (Walton, et al., 2017).
b)       Some of the residents have put in a complaint that the dining room is too cold.  Management has now forbidden the use of the air conditioners in the dining room.

Jenny is concerned that this makes the environment unsafe for the workers. The staff all get extremely hot while serving the meals. It is always a very busy time and they are running around getting the residents in place, serving meals, assisting with feeding, packing up the dishes, and so on.

Jenny notices that some of the staff are getting uncomfortable. Ian had sweat pouring off him yesterday and Rebecca was bright red in the face.

By the end of mealtimes they are all hot and bothered.  

  • Does Jenny have a responsibility to report this as a WHS issue to management? Explain your answer.
Yes, Jenny has the responsibility to inform Workplace Health and Safety management because all the management of the residence facing problems all employees were feeling hot while serving food. WHS management is a set of policies, and procedures that manage health and safety at the workplace it helps to minimize the risk of injury and illness. Jenny should tell all the situation to WHS management because feeling hot continuously can affect the staff and they can get harmed and get ill feeling hot can also burn staff member’s skin it is a serious problem it should be informed WHS management is the responsibility of WHS management to solve this problem (Seing, et al., 2015).
  • What possible solution could Jenny could suggest?
A solution that Jenny could suggest is to maximize the air conditioner temperature till the residents have their meals it is a good way to balance the room temperature because putting down the air conditioner temperature will balance the dining rooms temperature it is not too cold neither too hot so the staff members also can work easily and residents can have their meals easily this suggestion can solve the problem for both staff members and residents.

  • Jenny’s solution (see your response above) has been approved. She has been asked to assist with putting her solution into effect. Suggest at least three ways that she can do this.
Jenny’s idea has been approved now she can assist with putting her idea into effect. Three ways that she can do this.

1. Identifying the solution Jenny is understanding her idea so she can put it into effect she is understanding and analyzing the situation in the dining room so she can implement her idea.

2. Stratezing her idea-making strategies for her idea to implement it effectively.

3. The most important part is to implement the idea and strategies successfully and monitor how much the idea is working.

Question 4

Answer the following questions.

a)     Standard precautions
§  What are they and when should they be used?

Standard precautions are a set of practices used for patient care from infections and diseases. It is used in the case of example: blood (including dried blood).

§  What precautions should be taken?

Standard precautions include hand hygiene is very important to cure the infection and using gloves, masks, and eye protection.

b)     Additional precautions
§  What are they and when should they be used?

Additional precautions are used for extra practices and care to prevent some diseases. It is used to prevent infectious disease which is very harmful.

§  What precautions should be taken?

Additional precautions include hand hygiene which is most important to prevent any disease and safe infection practices and sterilization of items used for patient care (Moralejo, et al., 2018).

Question 5

While you are on a home visit, a client tells you that she is feeling unwell. She has stomach cramps, feels very nauseous and has bad diarrhea.

She tells you she must have picked it up off her grandson who visited yesterday, as he was unwell when he was visiting and had to rush off to use her toilet. 

  1. What responsibility does the client have to the worker?
Clients have the responsibility to make sure that the environment is safe for the workers it is the client’s responsibility that workers would not get exposed to the hazardous situations that and get not affected and make sure their safety and security of workers. It is the client’s responsibility to make an environment that helps to work comfortably and also that helps to achieve goals and success and always be supportive to workers. Clients should maintain the dignity and respect of workers (Johnston, et al., 2016).
  1. What infectious disease do you think it is likely your client has?
The clients have symptoms of gastroenteritis which is an infection and inflammation of the digestive system this is the reason that the client has suffered from nauseous and diarrhea and she also has stomach cramps because she gets infected by gastroenteritis it is infection which can spread very easily.
  1. What are three things that should be done to minimize the risk of this spreading to other people?
1.     Practicing good hygiene is very important to minimize the infectious disease from spreading the disease to others being hygienic such as washing hands, and wearing masks.
2.     Getting vaccinated is also a good way to control infectious diseases vaccine helps to build the immune system and helps to fight diseases and they also prevent infectious disease.
3.     Maintaining social distance with others is also very important to prevent infectious diseases to others such as isolation and maintaining distance with others is a good way to minimize the risk of spreading infectious diseases.
  1. Why is this a risk for workers – even though the client is in her own home?
Workers have the risk of getting infected by the client because the workers come in contact with the client and the client has suffered from an infectious disease it can be dangerous for workers to get contacted with a client when the client is suffering from an infectious disease it is very much possible that the workers can get exposed with the infection it is very important to make distance from a client and get precautions to avoid the infectious disease. It is a risk for workers because they get in contact with the client already without knowing that the client has suffering infectious disease so it is very important for woke to take precautions to avoid the infection because infectious disease can spread very to a person who can get contact with the patient who is suffering the infections so the worker also has the risk to get affected by the infection.

Question 6

List five things you can do to remain up to date with safe work practices.

Safe practice 1: The first safe work practice includes cleaning equipment and tools for safe use and maintaining tools regularly. It is very important to always follow safety procedure which gives direction for safety rules and regulations.
Safe practice 2: Ensure that all the workers are properly trained and experienced. Attending training programs regularly is very important to learn important things about safety and security and read all safety guidelines provided by an organization including all the safety procedures and rules and regulations.
Safe practice 3: Ensuring the ways to reduce the risk while working for the safety of workers for safety of workers includes implementing and developing safety protocols always creating plans to respond in emergencies checking and maintaining machinery and tools for use safely in the workplace.
Safe practice 4: Report hazard incidents to seniors to organizations to prevent accidents and injury it is also important to work safely in the workplace. It is important to report any incidents which dangerous to prevent hazardous incidents.
Safe practice 5: Keeping work areas and emergency exits and equipment for emergencies always and it is important to always be prepared for an emergency and always have an exit plan to escape from accidents or emergencies (Kulkarni, et al., 2016).

Question 7

Fill out the table after each scenario.

a)       Omar works in a rural location. His job is to visit clients in their homes. Due to the large area he services, Omar spends many hours of the day driving to different properties to see his clients.
List two risks (at least one risk must include musculoskeletal damage) List a control measure for each risk
Risk 1: First risk of driving for hours can affect the lower back sitting in the same posture for hours can damage the musculoskeletal system because a restricted posture for many hours while driving can harm the musculoskeletal system driving for hours hold the same position it can lead to joint stiffness and muscular aches and pains. It has a very high risk that joint stiffness or pain can affect moving and walking it can also affect the sitting posture. A way to reduce Musculoskeletal damage is to use a cushion for the back while driving and adjust the seat and take breaks while driving it can relax muscles and try to maintain good posture doing exercise is also very important to control musculoskeletal damage exercise helps to maintain the flexibility of body and it also reduces the risk of injury. If a person is having symptoms of discomfort or suffering from back pain, or joint pain it is necessary to get medical treatment to treat the pain.
Risk 2: The other risk of musculoskeletal system damage driving for hours using the feet for pedals can harm discomfort and fatigue in the feet and it can also lead the joint pain driving for hours and using feet for accelerator can stain the muscles can lead discomfort and pain in the feet and joints around knees. The ways to control the damage of musculoskeletal damage are using heat and cold compress therapy helps to prevent swelling and relax muscles and adjusting seat positions in a comfortable posture taking breaks while driving can relax the muscles and exercise daily is also a good way to control muscles damages.
b)       Kellie works transporting clients to appointments or the shops and other locations.
List two risks List a control measure for each risk
Risk 1: The first risk while transporting clients is falling if a client gets falls and gets injured it can harm the client and get injured by falling. The way to control and measure the risk of falling clients is to use safe handling techniques while transporting the client from one place to another place and use the techniques which ensure that techniques used while transporting ensure the safety of the client from falling.
Risk 2: Another risk is a health emergency while transporting the client. It is possible that a health emergency can occur between the transportation and the client’s suffering problem. A way to reduce the risk of health emergencies is to always have an emergency kit it is necessary to have emergency tools and a first aid kit for the safety of clients and always have an emergency plan to control the health emergency (Choi, et al., 2016).

Question 8


Look at the diagram above.

Why does this method of lifting produce less strain on the musculoskeletal system than bending at the waist?

In this method by doing this the muscles of the stomach get tight rather than the back muscles and strain occurs when the muscles of the back get overstretched and overused standing has less effect on the back than bending the waist in this method it can tighten up the stomach muscles which can lead the pain this is the reason that this method has the less strain on the musculoskeletal system than bending at the waist.

Question 9

Jenny was injured at work when using a portable hoist to transfer a client with mobility issues. 

The injury occurred because Jenny was not given any training in how to use the equipment.

Jenny’s supervisor had told her to follow the instructions in the manual – Jenny couldn’t find the manual so she decided to figure it out herself.

  1. Did the employer show a duty of care to Jenny? Explain your answer.
No, the employer did not fulfill his responsibility because it is the supervisor’s responsibility to give the training to Jenny but he ignored it and did not give training to Jenny and because of that Jenny get injured the employer must give the instructions to Jenny.
  1. Did Jenny fulfill her duty of care? Explain your answer.
No, Jenny also did not fulfill her duty because if she did not get training she would have reported to the seniors that supervision did not give her training, and when she could not find the manual then she should not work without instruction it can be dangerous for the client also because the client also gets harm and jenny risks her and clients life it is the irresponsibility of supervisor and jenny.
  1. Jenny works in Victoria. She would like to find out more about her WHS responsibilities. What is the name of the WHS authority that Jenny should contact?
The name of WHS authority is Work Safe Victoria authority plays an important role for Victorian employees it works for the health and safety of employees. WHS’s responsibility of Jenny is to take care of her health and safety and that of others also It is Jenny’s responsibility to take care of the client’s responsibility is also her duty to make sure that clients are safe and healthy.

Question 10

In the table below, give a brief explanation of what each of the safety signs means

Sign Meaning
  This sign is a tripping hazard it means whenever changes come in elevation presents a trip hazard. It means steps that have potential hazards. It helps in alerting to hazards.
This sign is an indication of the direction of first aid to available safety tools and facilities.
An automated external defibrillator sign was recommended for adoption throughout the world.
  This sign is used for products that have very poisonous substances.
This sign is used to indicate the hazardous conditions which can cause injuries.
  This sign is a warning of radiation it is made to protect people from radiation areas.
This sign is used when an infectious disease is spreading and prevents the spread of viruses.

Question 11

  1. List four emergencies will be covered by emergency procedures in the workplace?
1.  The first emergency in the workplace is fire emergency procedures every organization have fire safety equipment for emergency.
2.  In a medical emergency, every company needs to have medical facilities in the organization.
3.  Chemical Hazardous incidents are also an emergency which occur by chemical accidents in the workplace is also an emergency.
4.  A natural disaster is also included in emergency procedures in the workplace it includes that natural disasters occur such as earthquakes, and floods.

  1. List three key pieces of information you should be familiar with that you can find in emergency procedures.
1.   An emergency kit is very important for an emergency kit which includes safety equipment and important tools such as a medical kit, fire extinguisher, etc.
2.   Emergency procedures involve evacuation routes and emergency exits for emergency procedure provide necessary information about all the safety exit routes.
3.   The emergency procedure also includes contact information to connect in emergencies it includes essential communication tools to communicate in emergencies (Windholz, 2016).
What do I need to hand in for this task? Have I completed this?
Your answers to each question o


Ahmad, A. C., Zin, I. N. M., Othman, M. K., & Muhamad, N. H. (2016). Hazard identification, risk assessment and risk control (HIRARC) accidents at power plant. In MATEC Web of Conferences (Vol. 66, p. 00105). EDP Sciences.

Choi, S. D., & Brings, K. (2016). Work-related musculoskeletal risks associated with nurses and nursing assistants handling overweight and obese patients: A literature review. Work53(2), 439-448.

Johnston, A., Abraham, L., Greenslade, J., Thom, O., Carlstrom, E., Wallis, M., & Crilly, J. (2016). Staff perception of the emergency department working environment: Integrative review of the literature. Emergency Medicine Australasia28(1), 7-26.

Kulkarni, R. S., Giri, P. A., & Gangwal, P. R. (2016). Knowledge and practices regarding fire safety amongst health care workers in tertiary care teaching hospital in Marathwada region of Maharashtra, India. International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health3(7), 1900-1904.

Moralejo, D., El Dib, R., Prata, R. A., Barretti, P., & Correa, I. (2018). Improving adherence to Standard Precautions for the control of health care‐associated infections. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (2).

Seing, I., MacEachen, E., Ekberg, K., & Ståhl, C. (2015). Return to work or job transition? Employer dilemmas in taking social responsibility for return to work in local workplace practice. Disability and rehabilitation37(19), 1760-1769.

Walton, A. L., & Rogers, B. (2017). Workplace hazards faced by nursing assistants in the United States: A focused literature review. International journal of environmental research and public health14(5), 544.

Windholz, E. (2016). Securing Health and Safety at Major Sporting Events. Sports Law and Governance Journal1(1).

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