Equivocation is a way of speaking which is intentionally not clear and is a way of confusing people, mainly done to hide the truth, and also something said in that way. When one word is used without any reason in different parts of the arguments, one term is used in a different sense as it relies on the way which is used in an ambiguous way and to avoid committing a point of view. It is almost used by politicians if they want people to agree with them, in other words, calling the same name by two different things. Equivocation fallacies are of two types firstly Illogical Equivocation Fallacy, and secondly, logical Equivocation Fallacy both are explained below.
Arguments are illogical in the Equivocation fallacy while arguments are structural in other sentences. It is very common to express the equivocation in the following manner If A is B and B is C, then C must be A. Here are a few examples:
– Women are equal, and Men are not women, so all men and women are not equal.
– Dogs are wonderful pets. Tigers are considered a big animals. Hence dogs are wonderful pets.
Equivocation is common when expressed in this manner. I can be very humorous when it comes to making logical sentences while writing. It can take place in another form also like omission or placing incorrect words on the required one. Critical thinking is necessary for separating facts from the viewpoint of the author as it insists you consider both aspects of the issue. In face-to-face debates or some written arguments if the opponent is using an ambiguous way or wrong way of writing.
The logical Equivocation fallacy is to phrase an argument inappropriately or doesn’t mean the same sense of the two or more things constitutes equivocation. As it relies on the ambiguous meaning an equivocation fallacy can be observed while debate takes place or in the writing of the assignment and the result of the equivocation fallacy can be seen through the feedback. It may appear in the following way-
– Since I was returning from Canada that week, I informed my friends and family that I would not be able to attend the wedding. So even though the wedding is on Tuesday and I returned home on Monday, I didn’t want to go to the wedding so I hide the truth.
– Since our business has slowed down this year, so we have chosen to eliminate the expenses this year.
The most common and direct way to avoid the equivocation fallacy is by giving a clear and direct definition as it may help in avoiding multiple synonyms and follows the concept of uniformity. By avoiding the use of misrepresented, distorted claims or using false sentences which does not conclude a meaningful or logical sentence as required by the experts.