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CHCPAL001 Deliver Care Services Using a Palliative Approach


This Student Assessment Booklet-I includes Task 1 for assessment of CHCPAL001 Deliver care services using a palliative approach.


This unit requires that you complete 3 assessment tasks. You are required to complete all tasks to demonstrate competency in this unit.

Assessment Task About this task
Assessment Task 1: Written questions You must correctly answer all questions to show that you understand the knowledge required of this unit.
Assessment Task 3: Role play Students are undertake a two role plays. One relating to pain management for a client in late stages of stomach cancer. Students will also need to answer a set of verbal questions.

The second role play relates to the development of an advance care plan.

Assessment Task 3: Workplace Observation Students are to support, report and document the issues and needs of 2 people in palliative care

Supporting resources

You may like to look at the following websites, books and documents for more information about the topics related to this unit:

  • Croft, H 2013, The Australian Carer 3rd edn, Pearson Australia, Frenchs Forest, NSW.

How to submit your assessments

When you have completed each assessment task you will need to submit it to your assessor.

Instructions about submission can be found at the beginning of each assessment task.

Assessment Task Cover Sheet

At the beginning of each task in this booklet, you will find an Assessment Task Cover Sheet. Please fill it in for each task, making sure you sign the student declaration.

Your assessor will give you feedback about how well you went in each task, and will write this on the back of the Task Cover Sheet.


The prerequisite for this unit is NIL.


The candidate must show evidence of the ability to complete tasks outlined in elements and performance criteria of this unit, manage tasks and manage contingencies in the context of the job role. There must be evidence that the candidate has:

  • supported, reported and documented issues and needs of 3 people in palliative care


The candidate must be able to demonstrate essential knowledge required to effectively complete tasks outlined in elements and performance criteria of this unit, manage tasks and manage contingencies in the context of the work role. This includes knowledge of:

  • philosophy, principles, benefits and scope of palliative care
  • the needs of people dealing with a life-threatening or life-limiting illness and the emotional impact of diagnosis
  • cultural, religious and spiritual differences in relation to death and dying
  • the stages of grief and personal strategies for managing reactions to grief
  • advance care directives and end-of-life care strategies
  • pain relief and comfort promotion
  • nutritional and hydration requirements during a palliative approach
  • legal and ethical considerations for working in palliative care, including:
  • dignity of risk
  • duty of care
  • human rights
  • privacy, confidentiality and disclosure
  • work role boundaries – responsibilities and limitations
  • relevant policies, protocols and practices of the organisation in relation to the provision of both a palliative approach and palliative care
  • responsibilities to self and colleagues
  • various signs of imminent death and/or deterioration
  • communication strategies to build trust, show empathy, demonstrate support and empowers the person, family, carers and/or significant others

For all documentation on the performance criteria and assessment requirements of the unit CHCPAL001 – Deliver care services using a palliative approach, please refer to the website with this link:


Students: Please fill out this cover sheet clearly and accurately for this task.

Student Name  
Assessor Name  
Unit: CHCPAL001 Deliver care services using a palliative approach
Assessment Details
Assessment Type  Written/Oral questions
Agreement by the student
Read through the assessments in this booklet before you fill out and sign the agreement below. Make sure you sign this before you start any of your assessments.
Have you read and understood what is required of you in terms of assessment?     Yes     No
Do you understand the requirements of this assessment?     Yes     No
Do you agree to the way in which you are being assessed?     Yes     No
Do you have any special needs or considerations to be made for this assessment?  If yes, what are they?  …………………………… ………………………… ………………… ……… … … .………………………………………….     Yes     No
Do you understand your rights to appeal the decisions made in an assessment?     Yes     No
None of this work has been completed by any other person.     Yes     No
I have not cheated or plagiarised the work or colluded with any other student/s.     Yes     No
I have correctly referenced all resources and reference texts to complete these assessment tasks.     Yes     No
I understand that if I am found to be in breach of policy, disciplinary action may be taken against me.     Yes     No


I,____________________________________________________ ,  certify that the statements I have attested above have been made in a good faith, are true and correct. To the best of my knowledge and belief, these tasks are my own work.

Student Signature: ……………………………                                                       Date: …………… /……………../……………………………..


Result – Attempt 1 Satisfactory (S)    Not Yet Satisfactory (NYS)   

ASSESSOR FEEDBACK – Attempt 1 (Assessment Task 1)

Assessors: Please return this cover sheet to the student with assessment results and feedback.

 Assessor signature:                                                               Date: 

Re-assessment Result

(if NYS in Attempt 1)

Satisfactory (S)    Not Yet Satisfactory (NYS)   

ASSESSOR FEEDBACK – Attempt 2 (Assessment Task 1)

Assessors: Please return this cover sheet to the student with assessment results and feedback.

Assessor signature:                                                               Date:

Re-assessment Result

(if NYS in Attempt 2)

Satisfactory (S)    Not Yet Satisfactory (NYS)   

ASSESSOR FEEDBACK – Attempt 3 (Assessment Task 1)

Assessors: Please return this cover sheet to the student with assessment results and feedback.

Assessor signature:                                                               Date:


I declare that I have conducted a fair, valid, reliable and flexible assessment with this student, and I have observed the student demonstrate unit outcomes through consistent and repeated application of skills and knowledge over a period of time and provided appropriate feedback.




Fill in the declaration below if you have received a not yet satisfactory (NYS) result in all three attempts.

You can make an appeal about an assessment decision by putting it in writing and sending it to us. Refer to your Student Handbook for more information about our appeals process.

I have received my assessment result and I am satisfied with the given feedback for this assessment.

I am not satisfied about my result and I would like to appeal regarding my result.

Student Signature: ……………………………                   Date: ……… /………../………………


Task summary:

§  This is an open book test – you can use the Internet, textbooks and other documents to help you with your answers if required.

§  You must answer all questions correctly.

§  Write your answers in the space provided.

§  If you need more space, you can use extra paper. All extra pieces of paper must include your name and the question number/s you are answering.

§  You may like to use a computer to type your answers. Your assessor will tell you if you can email them the file or if you need to print a hard copy and submit it.

What do I need in order to complete this assessment?

  • Access to textbooks and other learning materials.
  • Access to a computer and the Internet (if you prefer to type your answers).

When do I do this task?

  • You will do this task in your own time.

what do I need to do if I get something wrong?

If your assessor marks any of your answers as incorrect, they will talk to you about resubmission. You will need to do one of the following:

  • Answer the questions that were incorrect in writing.
  • Answer the questions that were incorrect verbally.

Question 1

  1. What is the philosophy of palliative care?
  They need to defined the work plan and understand the dying normal process. In this they need to intends and understand the postponed death. Also they need to work for the spiritual intents and work for their system and their patient care.
  1. What are the aims of palliative care?
They need to work for the prevention and understand the scope related to the eary identification and also work for the workplace assessments and scope problems.
  1. What are three of the principles of palliative care?
Principle 1: This essential tenet of palliative care involves the management of pain and other physical symptoms of a serious illness, as well as the management of psychological, social, and spiritual misery. Palliative care teams aim to reduce all aspects of a patient’s suffering by utilising a variety of techniques, including medication, relaxation techniques, psychotherapy, and spiritual care.
Principle 2: Palliative care is personalised to each patient’s specific requirements and preferences, as well as those of their family members. This method acknowledges that every person has unique goals, values, and beliefs and that these factors should be taken into consideration when making decisions concerning their care. The development of a care plan that meets the patients’ physical, emotional, social, and spiritual requirements is a joint effort of palliative care teams, patients, and families.
Principle 3: Interdisciplinary Team Approach: In palliative care, a group of medical specialists collaborate to offer comprehensive care that takes into account all facets of the patient’s illness. This team, which collaborates to offer patients and families the best treatment possible, often consists of doctors, nurses, social workers, chaplains, and other professionals. This team-based approach makes sure that every part of a patient’s treatment is taken care of and that the patient and family receive support and advice during the illness and after.
  1. What is the difference between a ‘curative’ and a ‘palliative’ approach?
An emphasis on treating and curing a patient’s sickness with the aim of regaining the patient’s health to its pre-illness state is known as a curative approach to healthcare. A palliative approach, on the other hand, aims to manage symptoms. The majority of the time, a curative strategy entails rigorous medical procedures like surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy, which may have serious side effects and suffering

Question 2

  1. Working in palliative care can be very stressful. List three emotions that workers would feel while caring for terminally ill clients.
1: Compassion: Palliative care professionals frequently have a strong sense of compassion for the patients and families they are caring for. When staff members are unable to relieve their patients’ pain, they may experience feelings of helplessness or grief, which can be emotionally taxing. As employees seek to give their patients the finest treatment possible, this compassion can also serve as a source of inspiration and motivation.
2: Grief: When providing palliative care for terminally ill patients, carers may also feel grief as they watch their patients’ physical and emotional condition deteriorate and the effect this has on their family. Managing this grieving can be challenging because carers may need to assist their patients’ and families’ emotional needs while also coping with their own feelings of loss and despair.
3: Burnout: Palliative care providers may develop burnout if they are unable to cope with the stress and demands of their job. The work can be both emotionally and physically taxing. Burnout can affect how well employees are able to care for their patients by causing emotions of tiredness, cynicism, and a diminished sense of personal success. In order to avoid burnout and maintain their mental wellbeing, it is crucial for palliative care professionals to prioritise self-care and to ask for assistance from coworkers and managers when necessary.
  1. What are four things that you can do to help your colleagues deal with their emotions?
1: Foster a friendly Workplace Environment: Making a friendly and open workplace environment might make it easier for coworkers to talk openly about their feelings and experiences. Regular team meetings or debriefing sessions can be used for this, where coworkers can discuss difficult issues and provide one another with support.
2: Encourage Colleagues to Prioritise Self-Care Colleagues who prioritise their own well-being are better able to control their emotions and avoid burnout. This can entail taking breaks, partaking in stress-relieving exercises or meditation, or asking for support from family and friends away from the workplace.
3: Access to resources can help coworkers regulate their emotions and seek support when necessary. Examples of these options include peer support groups and counselling services. These resources may be made accessible through the workplace, neighborhood associations, or medical facilities.
4: Offer Flexibility: Allowing for variable work hours or workloads can assist coworkers in coping with the emotional demands of their jobs. Providing colleagues with opportunities for professional growth and training can also aid in helping them acquire the information and skills necessary to effectively manage the emotional demands of their jobs.

  1. What are three things that you could do to help yourself deal with your emotions
Putting self-care first is crucial for controlling emotions and avoiding burnout. This can entail engaging in stress-reduction and emotional wellbeing-promoting practises like exercise, meditation, or mindfulness.

Seek Support: Asking for help from coworkers, relatives, or friends can aid in emotion management and foster a feeling of connection and comprehension. Seeking assistance from mental health specialists, such as counsellors or therapists, who may offer direction and support in controlling emotions, can also be beneficial.

Set Boundaries: By establishing boundaries, you can better control your emotional needs and avoid burnout. Limiting the amount of time spent working or doing emotionally taxing activities while also giving other pursuits a higher priority can help with this.

Question 3

  1. List three types of nutrition and hydration advice you would give to a client and their family during the early stages of palliative care.
1: Focus on Balanced Nutrition: One way to preserve general health and wellbeing is by encouraging clients to eat a balanced diet that includes a variety of foods from all food categories. Lean meats, whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and healthy fats may be included in the diet to achieve this.
2: Maintain Adequate water: Maintaining adequate water is crucial for general health and wellbeing and can assist with symptoms like weariness or constipation. It can be beneficial to maintain hydration levels by advising clients to drink lots of water and other hydrating liquids, like herbal tea or diluted juice (Abel & Kellehear, 2016).
3: Think about nutritional supplements: Sometimes consumers find it difficult to get enough nutrients from diet alone. To help preserve general health and wellbeing under these situations, nutritional supplements like protein powders or vitamin supplements may be advised. Before beginning any new supplements, it is crucial to speak with a healthcare provider.
  1. In the final stages of life, appetite and thirst may decrease significantly. Family members may feel that they should try to feed the person. What would you advise the family members?
Generally speaking, it is not advised to force feed or administer fluids to someone who is already dead, as this can be upsetting and distressing. Instead, it’s crucial to concentrate on giving the person consolation and emotional support. If the person can handle it, give them tiny sips of water or ice chips, but stay away from giving them a lot of food or liquids. Family members can get direction and support from hospice and palliative care specialists during this trying time (Henderson, et al., 2019).
  1. List five signs that would indicate that the client is close to dying?
Changes in Breathing: Prolonged shallow breathing or irregular, laboured breathing may be a sign that death is nearby.

Reduced Consciousness: As death draws near, the person may become more and more unresponsive or challenging to wake up.

Skin Colour and Temperature Changes: As circulation declines, the skin may start to look pale or feel chilly to the touch.

Reduced Urine Production: As the body starts to shut down, the person may generate less urine or no urine at all.

As the body starts to shut down, the person may start to feel restless, irritated, or confused. This may indicate that death is approaching.

Question 4

  1. List two common misconceptions about pain relief.
1: Addiction to Painkillers: It’s a prevalent fallacy that opioid painkillers, for example, are highly addictive and should be avoided. Despite the possibility of dependence and addiction, these drugs can be taken safely and successfully when prescribed and closely supervised by a medical expert.
2: Another prevalent fallacy is the idea that pain is an unavoidable aspect of ageing or sickness and cannot be adequately treated. Actually, a person’s needs and preferences can be catered to by choosing from among a wide range of pain management techniques, including prescription drugs, physical therapy, and alternative therapies.

  1. Choose one of the misconceptions from a) above. In one paragraph describe why it is a misconception and what the truth is around this statement.
Many people have the idea that painkillers are inherently addictive and should be avoided. Effective pain treatment may be hampered by some people’s reluctance to take drugs because they fear doing so would result in addiction or other unfavourable effects.

Although it is true that some painkillers, especially opioids, can be addictive, the risk of addiction can be reduced by careful prescription and supervision by a healthcare provider. Additionally, avoiding drugs can prevent people with chronic pain from receiving adequate pain treatment. This is because many people with chronic pain need continual pain management to preserve their quality of life (Murray, et al., 2015).

It’s critical to dispel this myth and inform them about practical pain treatment techniques, such as prescription drugs, physical therapy, and complementary and alternative therapies. In collaboration with patients, healthcare providers can create a unique pain management strategy that balances the desire for pain relief with the advantages and disadvantages of various treatment approaches. By doing this, people can get the assistance and support they require to effectively manage their pain and preserve their general health and wellbeing.

Question 5

Shamus’s family come to talk to you about their his care.

They want to speak to you because they trust you as someone who has worked very closely with Shamus as a palliative care worker for the last two months. 

They are very distressed about a report they have received from the doctor, who has told them that Shamus has only days to live.

His family ask you to refer them to a different doctor – there must be something that can be done to preserve his life. They aren’t ready to lose him yet! 

Shamus has an advanced care directive. It states he does not want any further medical treatment to keep him alive.

His family are aware of this directive.

  1. You feel that people have the right to get a second opinion. Should you refer Shamus’s family to a good doctor that you know? Explain your answer.
Respecting the patient’s and their family’s autonomy and wishes is crucial for anyone providing palliative care. It is reasonable to support the request for a second opinion and advise Shamus’s family of their choices for obtaining additional medical counsel if they do so.
  1. What other action could you take to support Shamus’s family?
There are various things a palliative care provider can do to assist Shamus’s family during this trying time, in addition to honouring his preferences and facilitating a second opinion if desired.

First off, it would be beneficial to inform the family about the support options that are available, such as counselling, bereavement assistance, and palliative care resources. They may feel more knowledgeable and in control while deciding how to care for Shamus as a result of this.

It might also be appropriate to talk about the family’s emotional and practical requirements, as well as any worries or anxieties they might have around the dying process. As they traverse this trying period, this can help to establish trust and rapport with the family and make sure that their needs are being fulfilled.

Question 6

Shamus has died.

His wife, Katherine, comes to see you and thanks you for looking after him so well.

She gives you a hug and you both feel a bit sad.

Katherine tells you that she seems to be living in a daze. She can’t even remember what she did this morning. She is usually so well organised but just can’t seem to concentrate at the minute – what if something goes wrong at the funeral because she forgets to do something?

‘I haven’t even cried yet!’ she exclaims.

  1. Why is Katherine experiencing this type of reaction so soon after her husband’s death?
b)       In the wake of her husband’s passing, Katherine is going through a typical mourning reaction. Everyone has a unique experience with grief, which is a complicated emotional reaction to loss. After a loved one passes away, it’s common for people to feel numb, confused, and forgetful, especially in the early stages of bereavement. A person’s focus and memory may be impacted by the shock of the loss. Additionally, some people may put off grieving because they feel overburdened with daily responsibilities like making funeral plans or taking care of other family members. It’s critical to keep in mind that grieving is a very personal experience, and there is no right or wrong way to do it.

  1. What would you say to Katherine to reduce her fear of something going wrong at the funeral?
I would comfort Katherine that it is typical to experience confusion and overwhelm following the loss of a loved one. She is not alone, and there are individuals who can assist her with making funeral preparations, I would say. She could find it useful to establish a list of the things that need to get done and assign part of the work to her family or close friends. During this trying period, it is also crucial for women to take care of herself by getting enough rest, eating well, and having emotional support from others. I would emphasise to Katherine that the funeral is a time to honour and remember her spouse and that being there for her family is the most essential thing (Shahid, et al., 2018).
  1. What are the five stages of grief according to the Kübler-Ross Grief Cycle?
 These phases don’t always occur in the same order or affect everyone the same way. The person rejects the truth of the loss during the denial stage. They may experience wrath and resentment over the setback during the anger stage. They might try to cut agreements or bargain during the negotiation stage in order to prevent the loss. They could feel depressed and overtaken by the loss during the depression stage. The person finally begins to accept the loss and start looking for methods to move on during the acceptance stage. Individuals may alternate between these stages rather than advance through them in a straight line before arriving at the final level.

Question 7

Constipation is a common problem in palliative care clients. Laxatives may be prescribed by the doctor to assist with this.

Apart from medication, what are two supports that a personal care worker can give to a client suffering from constipation?

1. When making healthcare decisions and delivering treatment, it requires taking the patient’s values, beliefs, culture, and way of life into account.
2. By increasing the patient-provider connection and encouraging good communication between patients, providers, and families, patient-centered care seeks to improve health outcomes. It may result in higher treatment compliance, more patient satisfaction, and better health results( Meier, et al., 2017).

Question 8

A client’s family is looking for some information on palliative care. They have received the information provided by the HACC team but they are looking for more. 

Research the Internet and find a reputable source of information that they can access to find out more. Write down the source of this information (ie the website address).

The website of the health ministry of the Australian government, which offers thorough information on palliative care and related services, is one reliable resource for information on palliative care. is the website’s address. The website gives details about palliative care, including what it is, who delivers it, and how it is carried out in Australia. It also offers advice on advance care planning, end-of-life care, and support services for carers and families. The website offers trustworthy and scientifically supported information on palliative care that can be helpful for both patients and their families seeking additional information about this significant element of care. It is continuously updated.

Question 9

Describe each of the following terms – give an example of each.

Bessie has severe dementia.

Before she got dementia, she had written out an advanced care directive that said that she wanted to be resuscitated by CPR if she collapsed under any circumstances. 

As far as Bessie was concerned, life was more important than anything else – even if she wouldn’t be able to make her own decisions as her dementia progressed.

Bessie’s son has not been to visit her for months. One day he appears at Bessie’s side. ‘I’m the only next of kin,’ he says. ‘Mum isn’t here anymore, she’s just a vegetable now. I don’t want her to be resuscitated if she collapses again. Just let the old lady die.’ 

You are aware that Bessie is a very rich woman. From the look of her son, he could do with some money.

  1. What are the ethical issues involved in this scenario and what action should the care worker take?
In this case, the autonomy of the patient, the son’s self-interest, and the caregiver’s beneficence are the ethical dilemmas that need to be resolved. The patient’s preferences must be honoured, and all decisions must be made with their best interests in mind, not for selfish or financial gain, as is sometimes the case with care workers. In this scenario, even though her son disagrees, Bessie had previously expressed her desire to be revived, and this wish should be honoured. The advanced care directive must be followed, and the required care must be given, in order to respect Bessie’s wishes. Additionally, the carer must emphasise the significance of honouring the patient’s preferences and make an effort to comprehend the son’s worries.
  1. Describe three legal and three ethical issues that may arise with advanced care directives and suggest how to deal with these.
Conflicts with state laws, problems with the document’s legality and enforcement, and ambiguities in its interpretation are just a few of the legal problems that could occur with advanced care directives. Conflicts between a patient’s wishes and those of their loved ones or healthcare professionals, as well as problems with end-of-life decision-making, are examples of ethical dilemmas (Abel, et al., 2018).

It is crucial to make sure that advanced care directives are written and performed in line with state laws, and that they are clear, unambiguous, and legally valid in order to address these ethical and legal concerns. Healthcare professionals should make sure that patients are fully informed about their alternatives, the potential outcomes of their decisions, and the ramifications of their directives. Collaboration and open communication between patients, families, and healthcare professionals can also reduce disagreements and moral quandaries related to end-of-life decision-making.

Bessie’s son begins to ask a lot of questions about his mother:

§  ‘What is the matter with her?’

§  ‘How sick is she?’

§  ‘Does she know who anyone is anymore?’

§  ‘Where is all her bank paperwork?

Bessie’s son assures you that he has a power of attorney for Bessie – but he does not show you a copy.

  1. Bessie’s last surviving relative is her son. Considering he says he has power of attorney, do you think you can give him any of the information he has asked for? Explain your answer.
Bessie. Providing Bessie’s son with information about her medical condition or financial affairs without proper documentation would be a breach of confidentiality and privacy laws. Additionally, without verifying his power of attorney, it is not appropriate to disclose any information. Therefore, it is important to inform Bessie’s son that the care worker cannot disclose any information until a copy of the power of attorney is provided. It is also recommended to inform the appropriate authorities, such as the supervisor or legal department, to verify the authenticity of the power of attorney before any information is shared.

Question 10

  1. List five communication strategies for providing information to people about support services available to them
One of the most popular means of informing people about support services is through advertising. This entails producing flyers, pamphlets, or posters that are dispersed in locations where the target audience is likely to encounter them, such as public spaces, community centres, and educational institutions.

Social media: Sites like Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram give you the chance to spread your message to a larger audience. Support services can be advertised on social media by posting educational content or engaging infographics, videos, or posts (Hawley, 2017).

Creating referral networks with experts in similar sectors, such social workers, educators, or healthcare providers, is another tactic. By pointing people in the direction of the right resources, these professionals can assist in connecting them with support services.

Outreach initiatives: Outreach initiatives involve actively contacting people who might profit from support services. Phone calls, email campaigns, or door-to-door outreach are all effective ways to accomplish this. Outreach initiatives are frequently utilised to reach out to particular demographics, such as elders, low-income families, or people with disabilities.

Community events: Organising community events can be a powerful method to inform people about the support options available. These gatherings may feature talks, workshops, or resource booths where guests can get information. People have the chance to speak with service providers in person at community events and ask them questions.

  1. Outline the SOLER technique for ensuring you maintain positive body language
Placing oneself squarely in front of the other person means speaking to them while standing in front of them. Open posture entails maintaining uncrossed arms and legs while slanting the head forward to convey curiosity. Leaning in their direction conveys that you are interested in and actively listening to them. Making eye contact shows respect and focus. It’s easier to appear relaxed when you’re not uptight or distant.
  1. List five active listening strategies
·         Pay attention: Active listening entails giving the speaker your undivided attention. This entails setting aside all other distractions, including phones and other gadgets, and concentrating just on the speaker.

·         Reiterating what the speaker has said in your own words is known as paraphrasing. This helps to clear up any misunderstandings and shows that you are paying attention.

·         Asking clarifying questions can help you comprehend what the speaker is saying more thoroughly. Additionally, it reveals your attention in what they have to say and your desire to totally comprehend their viewpoint.

·         Use nonverbal indicators to convey your interest in what the speaker is saying. Nonverbal signs include nodding and maintaining eye contact.

·         Restate the essential ideas of what was said by the speaker when summarising. This shows that you have been paying close attention and have a solid grasp of what they have said.

Question 11

In the table below, provide a brief explanation of each of the legal and ethical considerations in palliative care (15 – 20 words)

Dignity of Risk The idea that people have the right to make decisions that involve some level of risk as long as they are given the information and encouragement to do so safely.
Duty of Care Duty of Care: The moral and legal need to act in a way that promotes other people’s security and welfare.
Human Rights Human Rights: Inalienable fundamental rights and liberties that are believed to apply to everyone, irrespective of race, gender, religion, or other traits. The rights to life, liberty, and personal security are among these rights, but they are not the only ones.

Question 12

  1. List five of the emotional impacts the diagnosis of a life-limiting illness may have on a client or their family members?
Shock: Both the client and their family members may experience tremendous shock when given a diagnosis of a life-limiting illness. It might be overwhelming to suddenly realise that life will not go as planned and can make someone feel numb or detached from reality.

Fear is a typical emotional reaction to a diagnosis of a terminal illness. Anxiety and discomfort can be caused by a variety of fears, including dread of the unknown, fear of the future, and fear of suffering.

Anger: After receiving a diagnosis of a terminal illness, some people have feelings of rage or irritation that they may direct at the disease, the healthcare system, or other people they believe to be at fault.

Depression: The psychological effects of a terminal illness A diagnosis may result in melancholy, pessimism, and despair. A sensation of loss and the knowledge that life may be passing by more quickly than anticipated might lead to depression.

Another typical emotional reaction to a diagnosis of a terminal illness is anxiety. Feelings of anxiety and apprehension can be influenced by the future’s unpredictability, the possibility of pain or suffering, and the effect on loved ones. Physical signs of anxiety can include weariness or insomnia.

  1. Give five examples of needs a person dealing with a life-limiting illness may have?
·         Physical requirements: A person with a terminal illness may need physical support for activities of daily living, pain management, and symptom control. Through medical interventions, palliative care, and home healthcare services, these needs may be met (Sawatzky, et al., 2016)..

·         Emotional requirements: Dealing with a life-limiting illness can be difficult emotionally. To process their emotions, make connections with others, and discover meaning and purpose in their life, people may require support. Emotional needs can be met through counselling, therapy, support groups, and spiritual care.

·         Social needs: A terminal illness can affect a person’s social life, which can cause feelings of loneliness and isolation. Opportunities for social interaction, family and friend support, help with transportation, and other practical needs are all examples of social needs.

·         Financial needs: The cost of medical care and other expenses related to a life-limiting illness can be significant. Financial needs may include assistance with medical bills, insurance coverage, and access to financial resources and support.

·         Spiritual needs: Spirituality can be an important aspect of coping with a life-limiting illness. Individuals may seek support and guidance related to their faith or beliefs, and may benefit from access to spiritual care services. Spiritual needs may also include the search for meaning and purpose, and the opportunity for personal growth and development.

Question 13

Do some research about the different spiritual, religious or cultural beliefs/ preferences client’s may have when it comes to death and dying. Provide two specific examples for each category

Spiritual / Religious Christianity: A lot of Christians think that there will be judgement in the hereafter. Their loved one is in the care of a greater power, and they may find solace in the notion that death is only a transfer to a better place. Additionally, they may perform funeral services with songs and prayer, as well as ask for last rites or the anointing of the ill.

Buddhism: Buddhists hold that death is a normal part of the cycle of life and that the idea of rebirth exists. They could try to lessen pain and maintain composure and mindfulness in the presence of death. They could organise rituals to make the transition to the afterlife easier, and they might ask for the presence of particular religious leaders when they pass away.

Cultural Hispanic/Latino: Death is often perceived as a normal aspect of life and as a continuation of the cycle of existence in many Hispanic/Latino cultures. Funerals frequently feature sizable gatherings and feasts, and family and community support is greatly appreciated. To remember the departed, altars may be erected, and blessings and prayers may be said.

Native Americans: The civilizations of the Native Americans hold a variety of views on death and dying. Many people consider the afterlife to be a trip to the spirit realm, and they may engage in rituals to support the deceased’s spirit. They could arrange funerals where participants wear traditional clothing and play drums because they think it’s important to keep a connection to one’s ancestors. Additionally, certain tribes have unique rituals and beliefs about dying and grief.


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