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BU1805 Annotated Bibliography

Topic: Youth-related violence: School shooting; Date-rape

Hawkins, J. D. (2000). Predictors of youth violence. US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

The author Hawkins reports on the youth-related violence that were becoming very common these days in every nation across the world. Hawkins further estimated that it turns out to be the most global public health problem. In this article, he clearly describes the determinants and predictors of prevailing youth violence (Hawkins, 2000).

These predictors are linked to the economic conditions that are closely related to the crimes. The positives and negatives of Juvenile detention centres were also been focused on how young people were sent to them rather than to adult prison for wrongdoing. Youth violence considered to be a major concern for the last 25 years in law and behavioural sciences. He describes Various sources that indicate the rise in youth violence. Based on the Estimation of USPHS in 2002, many youths have participated in violent conductions which leads to various injuries and killings of other people. So, the main concern from the law’s point of view is to decrease the minimum age of these offenders who tried to adults to initiate the violent juvenile. Many factors that are responsible for violence include various individual factors such as hyperactivity, concentration problems, restlessness, etc as well as peer-related factors such as delinquent peers, gang membership and delinquent siblings. Some family factors also led to violence like child maltreatment, poor family management practices and low levels of parental involvement (Hawkins, 2000). Some strategies that are suggested to manage this youth violence are as follows:

1) through the development of social and physical environment.

2) Through preventing the exposure of violence at the community level.

3) Norms should be implemented and values must be provided.

This author significantly describes how the relationship between youth violence and economic conditions could be managed to some extent.

O’Toole, M. E. (2009). The school shooter a threat assessment perspective. DIANE Publishing.

This article by O’Toole provided a static view of how killings were prevailing across the globe during the school shooting and many students were losing their life due to severe conditions. As this news prevails, all the administrators were worried and seek for a single answer, “is this incident taking place in their school?” schools should be a place where students can learn perhaps of the life under threat. The author also mentioned some key strategies that must be implemented to avoid such disastrous incidents of school shootings. Also includes the major steps that are a must during this type of incident (O’Toole, 2009).

It includes a severe armed attack on various institutions of education that consist of primary schools, secondary schools, and also universities and high schools. As school shooting might take place in any nation or any part of the world but is most prevailing in the states of America. As per the relative theories, the major factors that lead to this phenomenon include mental illness on psychological issues, Lacking supervision, and family dysfunction. Analyzing the attackers based on their effective motives includes persecution, bullying, threatened that is maximum, acts of revenge and several different reasons. Based on his theory it is also been analyzed that the most probable factor that force and lead an individual to commit outburst of aggression and severe criminal acts of violence is identified to be the presence of Immaturity prevailing among the individuals. There are also different types of typologies of school shootings that include Rampage shootings in which the main target is to attract the attention of the public as they are non-targeted attacks and are likely to be expressive. The second one is based on targeting individuals or school institutions as well and is known as mass murder. There is also a third variety of incidents that are termed as terrorist attacks in which the main purpose is a politically motivated attack undertaken with targeting school institutions or students as representative targets (O’Toole, 2009).

This article by O’Toole focuses on the people thinking about reducing the risk of issues as it is described through the essay project. Most people’s think only of the possible ideas to solve the issues perhaps not acknowledging the actual cause and the impact of the issues. With this article, the authors put forth the idea that one should reach into depth to seek effective solutions.

Martin, P. Y. (2016). The rape prone culture of academic contexts: Fraternities and athletics. Gender & Society, 30(1), 30-43.

The author Martin in this article examines the prevailing rape culture in convinced environments that includes social situations such as bars and societies and college parties. Rape culture is set to be the promoted norm in these societies. The rape culture that is a much prominent factor today is basically promoted by the prevailing gender lamination of our humanity. These gender roles are assigned in humanity and men are treated and promoted as dominant and aggressive and these beliefs are accepted throughout the culture. Sexual assault is the leading problem or major issue because of the social development of gender guild parties where the priority is given to men and inclined to disobey and mistreat women in culture. Sexual assaults turn into various psychological effects on the victims that could be in any form like severe anxiety, depression, reduced self-esteem and sexual dysfunction and in some cases thoughts of suicide are also common. Based on this article of Martin, to prevent these sexual assaults primary prevention methods should be implemented (Martin, 2016). These include targeting the risk factors at the different phases such as individual, relationship, and community (Martin, 2016).

This article is considered to be as significant due to its focus given on the micro-defined levels including Fraternity parties on the college campus. To develop and implement a plan or policy for equal participation, it needs to understand the human scenario from the women’s perspective.


Hawkins, J. D. (2000). Predictors of youth violence. US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

Martin, P. Y. (2016). The rape prone culture of academic contexts: Fraternities and athletics. Gender & Society, 30(1), 30-43.

O’Toole, M. E. (2009). The school shooter a threat assessment perspective. DIANE Publishing.,+M.E.+article+on+school+shooting&ots=8f7MI_fK1E&sig=l2qPSsbxaoNVgdWPG_Q_lKNyLVs

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