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HBM1002 Biomedical Science

Question 1

Two possible causes of high blood pressure can be

Unhealthy choices of lifestyle- During pregnancy, unhealthy choices of lifestyle can lead to high blood pressure. Gaining weight in an unhealthy way or being obese and overweight and not staying active are the major reasons for high blood pressure (Writes, 2017)

Mental stress- One of the reasons for high blood pressure can be mental stress. The high mental stress can put people at risk of high and serious blood pressure condition that is known as preeclampsia, having a low birth-weight infant, and premature birth. A prospective study states that women with high stress and anxiety increased risk of high blood pressure.

Question 2

Use PPE Kit- During point-of-care testing, it is important to take care of and consider health and safety measures. In point-of-care testing, it is important to wear a personal protective kit properly. It includes a face shield, hand gloves, eye protection glasses, etc. The PPE kit protects the persons who are engaged in the process of testing in the laboratory.

Dispose of the waste- To avoid the virus, bacteria, and other harmful pathogens in the laboratory from spreading outside the laboratory, it is important to keep in mind the safety measures like properly disposing of the waste of the laboratory. For instance, disposing of needles, cotton, bandages, etc can cause infection.

Question 3

The positive urinary results consist of nitrites, bacteria, leukocyte esterase, or less than 10  white blood cells per high-power field. A urinalysis is used to check the concentration, appearance, and urine content. The infection in urine can make the urine cloudy instead of clear. Increased levels of protein in urine and foam in urine can be a sign of kidney disease (Rodger, et al., 2018).

Question 4

The urinalysis is raised in the maternity patient for protein, ketones, blood cells, and sugar, to check that the maternity patient does not have a condition like gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and UTI. This test is important to identify the protein in the urine of maternity patients during pregnancy. If the patient releases high protein in the urine or releases foamy urine instead of clear, that shows the patient immediately needs a doctor or medical consultant.

Question 5

Avci, E., Aybek, H., Kangal, Z., Ceken, N., Kucuk, I.G. and Gezer, Y., 2018. The role of tubes with preservatives in urinalysis of pregnant women. Medicine Science7(3), pp.610-2.

Question 6

  1. When the patient releases high levels of protein in the urine, then it is called Proteinuria. In Proteinuria the person has foamy urine and does not release clear urine. The foamy and unclear urine shows kidney diseases. The harmless causes of proteinuria include dehydration and intense exercise, and the serious and critical causes may include serious kidney diseases and immune disorders. Kidney disorders or any other harm can be identified with the help of urinalysis. Proteinuria has various symptoms that can give an alarm or signal to the patient. The symptoms include more frequent urination, vomiting, nausea, tiredness, and shortness of breath (Avci, et al., 2018).
  2. Various methods are available to identify the level of proteins in the urine of the patients. The methods include turbidimetric methods like sulfosalicylic acid (SSA), trichloroacetic acid (TCA), sulfosalicylic acid with sodium sulfate (SSSS), and benzethonium chloride (BEC). The high level of proteins in the urine can be a sign of serious and severe kidney diseases. The foamy and unclear urine of the patient shows signs of critical kidney damage and kidney failure. The increased level of proteins helps the patient to diagnose the cause of kidney damage like high blood pressure and diabetes. The protein level higher than or equal to 0.3 g/l will be considered abnormally high (Igam, et al., 2020).

Question 7

The blood test helps medical experts to identify how the various organs of the body are working in the body of the patient. The malfunctions of organs can be shown in the blood test. For instance, the thyroid, kidneys, and liver. Doctors use the blood test to search for the cause of diseases and other health conditions. The blood test for the maternity patient is to identify or check the health of the mother as well as the infant. According to the above table, and the blood report of the maternity patient, the patient is not very healthy. The patient has a symptom of diseases in the body and cannot be considered as healthy.

Question 8

In a healthy person, the protein is very large to be filtered, so generally, the urine does not contain any protein. Untreated hypertension can be a cause of damage to the kidneys. When this system takes place in the body of the person, the filtration system can be leaked and it allows protein and blood also to enter the fluid which has to be filtered to become urine. High blood pressure can damage the kidneys and also increase severe kidney diseases in the person’s body. High blood pressure can weaken, harden and narrow the arteries around the kidneys. The patients can be suffered from severe kidney diseases like kidney failure and kidney damage.

Mennuni, S., Rubattu, S., Pierelli, G., Tocci, G., Fofi, C. and Volpe, M., 2014. Hypertension and kidneys: unraveling complex molecular mechanisms underlying hypertensive renal damage. Journal of human hypertension28(2), pp.74-79.

Question 9

There are various professional skills that we got to learn during this semester. These include-

  1. Analytical skills- analytical skills are very important to learn. It helps in laboratory and scientific tests and searches. These skills enable the person to identify the situation and circumstances in the laboratory during any test.
  2. Time management- Managing the time during any test or research in the laboratory or any other activity, is important. In this semester, I get to learn about time management techniques.
  3. Paying attention to details- when we are in the laboratory, it is very important to pay attention to the directions and suggestion given by the assessor. To know about the cons and effects of every chemical substance in the laboratory and use them with full care and safety, paying attention to the instructions are very important.
  4. Teamwork- one of the best skills that I got to learn in the semester is working in a team. Teamwork helps to rectify errors and mistakes and also helps to find the solution to every problem.

Question 10

The scope of improvement and the weak areas that need to be improved are as follows-

  1. Quality work- Quality work and research with good quality like accuracy and error-free are important to learn. In the next semester, more focus should be on quality work.
  2. Work with effectiveness- it is also important to complete any research and task with full of effectiveness and without wastage of resources. Next semester, the emphasis should be on work effectiveness.


Writes, S., 2017. Common causes of hypertension in senior adults. Health Science Journal11(4), p.1000523.

Rodger, F., Roditi, G. and Aboumarzouk, O.M., 2018. Diagnostic accuracy of low and ultra-low dose CT for identification of urinary tract stones: a systematic review. Urologia internationalis100(4), pp.375-385.

Avci, E., Aybek, H., Kangal, Z., Ceken, N., Kucuk, I.G. and Gezer, Y., 2018. The role of tubes with preservatives in urinalysis of pregnant women. Medicine Science7(3), pp.610-2.

Igami, K., Uchiumi, T., Ueda, S., Kamioka, K., Setoyama, D., Gotoh, K., Akimoto, M., Matsumoto, S. and Kang, D., 2020. Characterization and function of medium and large extracellular vesicles from plasma and urine by surface antigens and Annexin V. PeerJ Analytical Chemistry2, p.e4.

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