Assessment Task 1: Research report
Traditional and cultural diet of Australia-
- Lamingtons- Lamington is known as Australia’s National Cake. It is spongy square-shaped pieces dipped in chocolate syrup and coated with coconut. There are also variations in Lamingtons. The other variations include a creamy layer and a filling of delicious jam in it. Lamingtons are taken with bush tea and coffees.
- Pavlova- Pavlova is a famous and traditional desert in Australia. It was first introduced in the 1920s in the honor of Anna Pavlova’s visit in Australia.
- Barramundi- Barramundi is large-scaled river fish. Of is considered the true Australian meal and a very healthy alternative compared to battered fish. Barramundi is famous seafood that is available in all the cafes and restaurants in Australia.
- Pumpkin Soup- Australian food is not limited to only meats and beef. There are a variety of vegetarian dishes also which are delicious and healthy. This includes pumpkin soup, tomato soups etc.
Religious Food of Australians-
Christmas is celebrated with grand pomp in Australia and various dishes are prepared. The Christmas menu includes a variety of meats, salads, kinds of pasta, and different types of desserts. After dinner, plum puddings, fruitcakes, and shortbreads are also popular.
Easter is also celebrated in Australia at a grand level. The Easter menu consists of chicken with roasted vegetables like broccoli, carrots, potatoes, peas, etc., roast lamb, and beef. Seafood and salads are also very popular. Pavlova is a famous religious dessert that is made with egg whites and sugar and fruits on it. It is a famous and popular Easter meal.
Australian Dietary Guidelines-
Australian Dietary Guidelines emphasize healthy eating and healthy eating habits of the persons. The meal which you take in lunch, breakfast, and dinner is directly connected with your health. A healthy diet will keep you fit and disease-free.
The main aim of these guidelines is
- To promote wellbeing and good health
- Reduce the threat of high cholesterol, high blood pressure, etc
- Reduce the threat of diabetes, heart-related diseases, and various types of cancers.
The selection of the right and healthy food is very important for good health. “The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating” guides the individuals and helps to select the healthy meal. A healthy meal and a balanced diet improve our health and provide protection against chronic diseases. A wrong meal and food will make you weak and unhealthy.
The Australian Dietary Guidelines provide advice about the food that should be included in the meal. They also suggest which food is to be taken and at how much quantity of the food is required to take in a day.
According to these guidelines, Australians should eat:
- Green vegetables
- Fruits salad
- Seeds and nuts
- Red meat (only young females)
- Cereals and lentils
- Should reduce cheese, yogurt, fat milk
- Seafood, fish, poultry eggs
- Should drink plenty of water instead of beer and alcohol
Food that should avoid-
- Cereals that are refined
- Red meats (only male adults)
- Starchy vegetables
- sugar-added drinks
- Biscuits, cakes, and other bakery items
- Sweetened drinks
- Alcohol and cocktails
- Chocolates, jam, and honey
- Cream and butter
- Fried hot chips, potato crisps
Australian Dietary Guidelines includes:
Guideline 1- To maintain the right and healthy weight, be physically fit and active, include nutritious food in your meal, and take only energy drinks
Guideline 2- Enjoy wide variety of nutritious food
Guideline 3- Avoid and reduce the quantity of food that contains high sugar and salts, and saturated fat. Avoid alcohol and beer.
Guideline 4- Encourage and promote breastfeeding
Guideline 5- Prepare and store your food safely.
Culinary characteristics and ingredients of special, cultural and religious diets
Complete the following table by providing a brief description of each diet or regime, the health or other implication of failing to address the special requirement, and one suitable adjustAn eliminationcement or substitute ingredient.
|Health/other implications of failing to address special requirements
|Elimination diets are the diet in which we exclude or avoid some foods for a short period of time and then reintroduce them after some time to monitor and analyze the symptoms and reaction (Hart, 2018).
· Digestive distress
· Sore joints
|Should eat natural food substances like vegetables, fruits, and dry fruits. Avoid foods from which you have an allergy
|A macrobiotic diet emphasizes avoiding the toxins which come from meats, oily and saturated food, and dairy products. A macrobiotic diet includes whole grains, cooked vegetables, cereals, and fruits.
|· Low haemoglobin
· High cholesterol
|Should take plant-based foods, foods enriched with high fiber, and complex carbohydrates. whole grains and legumes are beneficial.
|Low fat diet is a diet which limits the quantity of dietary fat. It is an eating plan that consists foods having low and free from fats (Stubbs, et al., 2018).
|· High blood pressure
· Increased cholesterol
· Cardiac attacks
· Artery diseases
|Should include fruits like melons, berries, apples, oranges, and potatoes. Except for olives and avocado. Eat pulses and grains
|Fluids that are useful for the body and gives you energy and increase your metabolism.
· Weight gain
· Increase calories
|Water is the best fluid to quench the thirst. Other fluids are natural and preservative free juices, and shakes. Avoid tea, alcohol, beer.
|The diet plan that excludes the food which contains gluten. Gluten is a protein. So, the food that is free from protein (Estévez, et al., 2016).
|· Celiac disease that damages small intestine
· Affects nerve tissues
· Foggy brain
|Take fresh vegetables and fruits. Eggs, beans, seeds. Wheat, barley, rye, oats should avoid.
|The food that is allowed to eaten and drink by muslim community ae said to be halal. It includes poultry and foods, meat of camels, goats, sheeps.
|· Impaired Deficiency of iodine
· Deficiency of vitamin B12
|Intake of eggs and meat to keep the immune system strong, and good nervous system.
|High carbohydrate/ low carbohydrate
|High carbohydrate food includes grains, fruits, starchy vegetables, beans peas and lentils. On the other hand, low-carb foods are meat, poultry, and seafood, nuts, peanuts, seeds, cheese (Ebbeling, et al., 2020).
|· Sugar level drops
· Impaired immune system
|Should eat lots of grains and fresh fruits. include Beans and lentils in your diet.
|High or low energy (high or low kilojoule)
|Foods that are high in fats and has high sugar are highest in kilojoule, and the food like fruits and vegetables has low kilojoules
|· Over weight
· Increase fats
|Should include fruits and vegetables in the diet. Milk and dairy products should be taken
|High or low protein
|Vegetables and fruits has low proteins and meat, eggs, fish, and poultry products has high protein.
|· Loss of muscle mass
· Fatty liver
· Risk of bone fractures
|Intake of milk, yogurt, eggs, fish, fish oil.
|The foods which enriched with high fibre like wheat, barley, berries, lentils (Bhuiyan, et al., 2021).
|· Heart diseases
· Hunger after meals
|Should include fibre enriched foods like barley, wheat, strawberries, avocado, apples
|Hindu meal is completely based on plants. It is proper vegetarian food which includes fruits and vegetables, grains and dairy products.
· High sugar
· Heart diseases
|Intake of proper veg foods like vegetables and fruits, milk, curd etc. it does not include non- veg food
|Foods that are conformed to the jewish dietary regulations.
|Deficiency of iodine
|Should take meat and dairy products
|Lacto Ovo food is based on vegetarian food pattern
|Fruits like oranges, apple, berries etc and green leafy vegetables should be taken
|The food that has a low amount of cholesterol.
|Should take oats, beans, barley, apple, grapes
|Gluten is a type of protein that is found in barley, wheat, rye, and spelled.
Non-celiac gluten sensitivity
|A person should take low-gluten foods like eggs, dairy products, fruits and vegetables, and grains.
|Modified sodium or potassium
|Potassium and sodium help to manage fluid and volume of blood in the body.
Low blood pressure
|For sodium and potassium, a person should take dairy products, seafood, vegetables, and fruits.
|Texture modification is the diet in which food is pureed and mashed to eat safely.
|Mashed potatoes, pureed peas, and cream sauce should be given
|Diabetic (type 1 and type 2)/ low sugar/sugar free
|Diabetic diet include that food that have low sugar level and do not harm the body
|Sugar free diet includes, multigrain flour, all fruits except, mango, banana, and grapes. Sugar enriched food should completely avoid.
|Vegan diet is completely based on plants and it excludes animal exploitation.
|An individual should take fresh fruits and vegetables, grains, barley, cereals, curd, yogurt, and other dairy products.
|Like vegan food, a vegetarian diet also includes only plant-based foods. It does not include any meat, beef, seafood and poultry
Occurrence of constipation
High blood pressure
|A person with these diseases should take nonspicy food and eat leafy vegetables, juice of fresh fruits, milk, cheese, etc.
Drug-food interactions, food allergies, food intolerances and cultural and religious dietary sanctions
Complete the following table by providing a brief definition of each of the following terms and providing two examples of each.
|A drug-food interaction occurs when your medicine and the diet you intake, interfere with one another. It means the food you eat, is affect the medicines you take.
|1. Grapefruit and statins
2. Antibiotics and dairy products.
|Food allergy occurs when body reacts unusually and adversely because of taking some specific foods. Different areas of the body can be affected by food. It includes skin itching, red eyes, sensation in the throat and mouth.
|1. Milk and peanuts
|Food intolerance is difficulty in digesting some food items and it affects to the body negatively.
|1. Protein found in wheat and barley.
2.Lactose in milk
|Cultural and religious dietary sanctions
|There are different religions and they have different dietary sanctions. According to dietary sanctions, there are food which are allowed to eat and some are restricted, based on the religion and culture.
|1. Hindus diet is completely based on plants.
2. Christians generally follow vegan diet
Key health and legal consequences of failing to address special requirements
Complete the following table by providing at least one health and one legal consequence of the following scenarios.
|A customer orders coffee and cake in a bistro during a busy weekend lunch service. At the time of ordering, they clearly state that they have an allergy to eggs and egg products and check that the cake they are ordering is egg-free as advertised on the menu. The waiter assures the customer that it is. When the waiter takes the order through to the kitchen, they are careful to communicate to the kitchen staff that the customer has an egg allergy and they write the allergy carefully on the docket. However, when the cake is served, a sauce containing egg protein is added to the plate and it is served to the customer. The customer suffers an allergic reaction requiring hospitalisation.
A customer would suffer from Skin inflammation, nausea, and vomiting, sneezing.
Because of the carelessness of the kitchen staff, the customer suffered a lot and he could sue the Bistro and demand for compensation.
|A resident in an aged care facility has a known allergy to tree nuts causing anaphylaxis. The allergy is clearly recorded in the resident’s medical records, in meal plans and as required by all the legislation. However, there is a change to an ingredient in one of the sauces used in a standard recipe which is not picked up when stock is delivered. The resident unfortunately consumes a tiny amount of the sauce, suffers an anaphylactic reaction and passes away as a result.
|Health consequence- increased heart diseases and major threat of heart attack.
Due to the neglectful behavior, the resident passes away. Family of the resident can sue the person who chooses the ingredient carelessly and demand for resignation from job
|A person with a food intolerance to lactose is eating at a new restaurant. They forget to advise the staff about their dietary issue and, when the meal is brought to the table, they notice that it has been topped with cheese. The addition of cheese wasn’t described on the menu. They then advise the staff they have a lactose intolerance and ask them to return the dish to the kitchen and prepare a new one. When the dish comes back to the table, the waiter assumes that it is safe for them to eat. The next day, they suffer dietary symptoms similar to having eaten lactose and the only thing that they can put it down to is the meal that they had in the new restaurant. When they contact the restaurant, they discover that the cheese was removed from the top of the dish and the same dish was re-served. The restaurant advises the customer that there may have been some cheese throughout the dish as well.
The customers could suffered from gas, stomach cramps, diarrhea.
In this case, the kitchen staff of the restaurant make deliberate mistake. After knowing that the customer has lactose allergy, they served the food. SO, the customer will sue the restaurant, and filed a case of cheating against them .
Bhuiyan, M., Cheng, Z., Bari, M. S., & Iji, P. A. (2021). High fibre diet reduced the energy cost of production and abdominal fat of broiler chickens. Adv. Anim. Vet. Sci, 9(10), 1585-1593.
Ebbeling, C. B., Bielak, L., Lakin, P. R., Klein, G. L., Wong, J. M., Luoto, P. K., … & Ludwig, D. S. (2020). Energy requirement is higher during weight-loss maintenance in adults consuming a low-compared with high-carbohydrate diet. The Journal of nutrition, 150(8), 2009-2015.
Estévez, V., Ayala, J., Vespa, C., & Araya, M. (2016). The gluten-free basic food basket: a problem of availability, cost and nutritional composition. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 70(10), 1215-1217.
Hart, G. R. (2018). Gut microbiota, IgG-guided elimination diet and sports performance. BAOJ Nutrition, 4(2), 052.
Stubbs, R. J., Hopkins, M., Finlayson, G. S., Duarte, C., Gibbons, C., & Blundell, J. E. (2018). Potential effects of fat mass and fat-free mass on energy intake in different states of energy balance. European journal of clinical nutrition, 72(5), 698-709.