Sustainability refers to process in which present needs are fulfilled without affecting the compromising ability of future generations. Sustainability plays an essential role in tourism sector. The role of Sustainable development is increasing in the tourism industry. The tourism industry is one of the fastest-growing industries in the UK. Tourism development refers to sustainable expansion in tourism sector. Sustainable tourism is an industry that is committed to developing a lower effect on the environment and local culture at the time of generates future employment for local individuals. The positive sustainable tourism makes sure about the development which is providing a positive experience to the local area citizens. Tourism development is necessary for earning competitive advantages for nations in terms of gaining economic growth, global positioning, and improvement in the country’s employment services. The assignment is based on Top deck a tour operator company which provide trips for people whose age is around 18 to 39 in all over the country. The main purpose of the report is to analyze different methods to planning and expansion of sustainability about London. This will help in identifying the issues and hurdles in planning for sustainable role in tourism with a concentrate on gaining advantages for local society, economy, and environment largely.
1.1 How stakeholders can benefit from planning
Benefits of Planning in Tourism industry to Stakeholders
UK is considered as sixth largest tourist destination in the world. As per the tourism data, nearly 40 million tourists have visited London in the year 2018. London is one of the major tourist destinations in the United Kingdom. London is visited by a number of tourists in the UK. London has some of the best scenery in the entire world. Although there are many tourist places in London but the British Museum which is located in the Bloomsbury area of London is the most visited tourist place in the UK. More than 5.9 million visitors visit the British Museum of London. Tata Modern is the second highest visited place in London with approximately 5.6 million visitors (Lifesabutterely, 2019).
Stakeholders can be defined as a person who has an interest in a certain industries. Growth and downfall in the industry have an impact on stakeholders. In simple words, stakeholders are directly affected by the changes in the industry. Stakeholders in the Tourism industry are those persons which affect the tourism industry. Local residents, media, government, employees, business associations, tourism developers are covered under stakeholders in the tourism industry. Planning refers to the process of making plans for activities that are required to achieve desired goals. Planning not only involves the creation of plans bit also involves maintenance of the plan. Tourist development planning refers to preparing and implementing plans which will increase the number of tourists in the country. Tourism planning is considered as an important part of destination tourist development. Effective Tourism planning is required to satisfy stakeholders of the tourism industry. Many elements are covered under tourism development. Tourism development helps in managing public-private partnerships, ensure sustainable development, accessing international corporations. The main aim of Tourism planning is to develop alternative solutions to the perceived problems. Effective planning can help stakeholders in tourism in the case of London by analyzing of different factors that impact the environment and economy in of region.
Planning in tourism development helps in increasing revenue of the tourism industry of London. Planning will not only helps in increasing revenue but also helps in creating multiple job opportunities in the country. Planning will also help the government of London in formulating various policies that will help stakeholders of tourism sector. Tourism expansion planning helps in preserving cultural heritage of tourists. Planning will also help in the optimum utilization of resources. Effective planning will help increase government revenue by attracting a large number of tourists in country. Planning will also help local businesses of London in generating revenues and develop the economy of the nation (Lifesabutterely, 2019).
1.2 Advantages and disadvantages of public/private sector tourism planning partnerships
Advantages and Disadvantages of Private/Public sector Planning partnerships
Public-Private Partnership (PPP) allows the government to improve tourism assets with the help of applying the creativity and efficiency of the private sector. Partnership of both the public and private sectors will assist in improving condition of tourism sector of London. This partnership will help in solving the financial shortage in London tourism department in some cases, non-government organization i.e. NGO and other associations are part of this partnership (Luzecka, 2016).
Advantages of Public-private partnership in Tourism panning
Public-Private partnership helps in providing improved infrastructure in the tourism industry. PPP in tourism planning will also help in reducing risk which is related to new projects. With PPP, the authority can share risk with private sector. Risk may include Difficulties in meeting with environmental regulations, market slowdown. PPP also helps also in bringing innovation in the tourism industry of London (Signorile,et.al, 2018).
The government can raise funds from private firms in London which will aid in development of tourism sector. In this way, London tourism can earn more amount of profit along with sustainability development.
Disadvantages of Public-private partnership in Tourism planning
PPP is determined as essential for tourism planning. It will assist in developing the tourism sector of London. But the participation of the Private sector in the tourism sector might increase the cost of infrastructure and tourism services. And the increase in Tourism services can impact the revenue of the tourism industry of London.
PPP can also lead to the overutilization of tourism resources. And over- Utilization of resources will harm the nature. The tourism industry is dependent on the physical environment and a variety of natural resources (Signorile, et. al., 2018).
M1 Demonstrate the approached to study and research the public-private partnership
Partnership in tourism planning will help in developing London tourism industry and helps in attracting more number of visitors in nation. PPP covers Collaborative tourism partnerships that involve both the private sector and government. Partnership of Government and private firms of the tourism industry will also help in better utilization of resources. Non- renewable resources of the tourism industry will be used in a planned manner. PPP is a long term contract. It might be possible that private and government firms may not contribute due to internal conflicts. Conflicts have a direct impact on revenue and enlargement of tourism sector.
2.1 Different approaches to Tourism planning and development
The tourism development and planning process covers various processes and plans for tourism development. Success of Tourism sect-or of London is depended on effective planning tools and techniques. Tourism development planning will not only help in generating revenue but also helps to reduce the negative effect on the heritage and culture of London (Luzecka, 2016).
Key Steps in Tourism development and planning process
- Estimating tourist supply and demand
- Determining objectives
- Planning based upon objectives
- Developing basic infrastructure
- Financial planning
- HRM management planning in the Tourism industry
- Administrative Structure
- Developing plans for Advertising and promotion
- Evaluation and monitoring progress.
- Time Factor
Tourism planning starts with the collection of information regarding potential customers for desirable growth. Analysis of the present structure of demand and supply model will help in making predictions. Predictions help in developing a tourism planning program. Data collected is used for setting tourism objectives that have to be achieved by the entity. Financial planning is also considered an essential tool for tourism development Setting of administrative structure is also an important part of Tourism development planning (Luzecka, 2016).
Various levels of planning involves
International level- Development planning in London is done at the border level to attract tourists from several countries across the globe. London tourism department can attract a large number of tourists by making them feel comfortable. Tourism development also helps in improving social and economic welfare of people in London. Tourism development also helps in improving economy of country.
National level –Both public and private organizations are responsible for supporting tourism operations at national level. Department of London tourism is implementing various strategies which help in improving tourism development in the country. Tourism authority is working with organizations at national level with the objective of performing three business activities in more effective manner.
Regional level -Under this planning necessary facilities are developed to promote tourism in a particular area. Only local bodies are involves in the planning procedures at regional levels. Facility planning helps in increasing the number of tourists in London and helps in promoting the tourism industry (Signorile, et. al., 2018).
Sub- Regional level– Features of bodies at regional levels are considered as more specific and clear. These are defined as those bodies which are responsible for forming link between national and regional level authorities. Main objectives of these authorities are to develop plans which help in protecting destinations of tourism industry. Issues among government and citizens can be resolved by conducting meetings and also guiding citizens in relation to tourism benefits.
2.2 Importance of Interactive Planning System
Planning is divided into many types such as such as protective planning, reactive planning, Inactive planning, and interactive planning. All these types of planning are used to bring efficiency in the different sectors. Interactive planning has the main concentrate on designing of current functions in such a way that these can be used for creating a better future. In terms of London tourism interactive planning is used for creating better tourism. Aim of interactive planning is to design a structure that encourages more number of tourists to visit London tourist places (Luzecka, 2016).
Interactive planning is treated as a continuous procedure that involves all the stakeholders’ i.e. government, Tourists, local residents in decision-making procedure. Interactive planning ensures that the ideas of stakeholders are taken into consideration while implementing decisions. Impacts of Tourism cover all the effects of tourism on economic and environmental communities. Tourism impacts are divided into three categories. Economic impacts contribute to better employment services, social stability. Environmental impacts affect the carrying ability of a particular place. The introduction of Tourists to areas can be damaging and contribute to cultural sites through increased resources (Luzecka, 2016).
Many techniques are required to evaluate tourism impact. The development of the tourism industry can have different impacts. The impact of these activities depends on the way these are maintained. Tourism can have both positive and negative impacts on the economic, social and environmental factors of London. The planning procedure is implemented to evaluate whether the objectives of industry are satisfied by measuring social, Economic and environmental impact. Different methods like Triple bottom line, EIA, Tourism economic activity monitor can be used to monitor the impacts of these factors.
Interactive planning system helps in bring corporation in among the participants of tourism market. Corporation among various participants helps in achieving objectives in effective manner. Corporation also helps in reducing conflicts among different market participants. Collaboration is required in the tourism industry for improving of activities of tourism sector. Collaboration helps in providing equal opportunities for different market participants of tourism industry.
2.3 Impacts of different factors in the case of London
Social measures-Social impacts of tourism plans are difficult to count and measure. Generally, two methods are used for collecting the required information for social impact measurements. The first way is by collecting primary sources information through questionnaires, surveys, and interviews. Second option is concerned with the analysis of sources which can be collected from public documents, documentaries, and newspaper and government records. Social measures have impacted the tourism industry of London. Change in culture can be analyzed by creating specially designed places (Ibañez, et. al., 2016). London is adopting such culture in which their people can easily adjust in better manner. For this, they are analyzing the whole country which is such a beautiful place to visit and they are adopt only current trends to attract visitors.
Environmental measures– Environmental measures are used to evaluate environmental costs. The main objective of environmental measures is to forecast environmental effect of tourism development actions. Concern impacts helps in avoiding potential risks by implementing necessary measures. Information is gathered which helps to understand environmental effects on different plans. Environmental auditing, Tourism industry in London can determine any disturbances in ecology, socially, environmentally and other factors which are directly impact on their surroundings as well as people.
Economic measures-Economic measures are very critical considerations for London. Development of tourism is associated with economic wealth; Measures of tourist research have economic impacts. These are developed by the persons who have experience in the UK tourism industry. Steam and Cambridge model are two important models use to evaluate the economic effect on the tourism industry of London. STEAM model covers all those approaches which help in measurements of tourism. STEAM Model focuses on the use of a large number of local economic impacts on the tourism industry. Cambridge model provides easy access to national surveys by providing maintenance information at a lower cost (Ibañez, et.al 2016).
Tourism Development Impact
|Description of Impact
|Economic impacts analysis effect of an impact on economy. Tourism industry has various economic impacts on London.
|Tourism multiplier effect technique helps in reducing economic impact on tourism industry. This method will also encourage growth in secondary and tertiary sector.
This model can help in evaluating economic impact on tourism sector in an specified area. It helps in converting number of visitor to economic terms.
|Increase in tourism is responsible for creating various environmental issues. London Tourism industry has also created pollution like as many other industries.
|Environmental impact Assessment is an important measurement method which helps in analyzing environmental impacts on different types of developments and projects.
Carrying capacity technique helps in defining capability of an definite area. This tool helps in development of tourism industry.
|Change in living conditions of population, poverty, quality of life are covered in social impact that effect London tourism.
|Social impact in tourism industry can be easily measured with the help of analysis of secondary data.
Doxey’s irrisex is one of the commonly used modal in tourism industry. It is based on the understanding of local population of country. It helps in analyzing impact by analyzing attitude change of local population towards tourists.
M2 Relevant theories and techniques are applied in explaining, analyzing and measuring tourism impacts
Social measures are considered as subjective in nature and can be examined by observing impact on London culture and diversity of language. The tourism economic environment can be defined as an upward shift in the income of residents who are living in that locality. Economic measures are typically considered in monitory conditions. Changes in the income of residents can be seen in the lack of visiting the attractions, action. Tourism activity directly impacts business profile, amount of job creation, revenue return and employment earning.
D1 significance of interactive planning in tourism development at different level
Tourism objectives deal in improving employment level, opportunities for intellectual growth and standers of living of people. Good infrastructure is required for the success of the tourism development program. Infrastructure facilities and services provide support to the tourism plan. Estimation of basic infrastructure is needed for tourist expansion. Infrastructure requirements vary from country to country. This planning ensures that sustainable tourism activities are achieved in London. The interactive system of planning helps in developing tourism activities in London. Interactive planning also assists in designing services through the involvement of markets and analysis of marketing needs.
3.1 Concept of sustainability in tourism development
The idea of sustainability is that location which accents the conversation of all property to be obtainable for future time in terms of culture, beautiful locations, environment and many more of London through attains sustainability in tourism. Therefore, planning for sustainable tourism in London is required for analyzing the negative impact on the environment of areas. Sustainable tourism is one that assists in maximizing social and economic advantages for host nations that will reduce the negative impact on the environment and also get greatest for culture (Amir, et. al., 2015). This is that thought which diminishes the cost that is required to the local civilizations and environment. Sustainable tourism is mainly planned with the main purpose and gain benefits from local people that are creating harm and damage to the whole environment. Sustainable tourism in London assists in preserve culture and rich inheritance is mainly attracting tourists from their places.
The tourism in London’s main aspire is to reach and gain a higher economy with the help of developing and creating jobs and continuous acquiring income and enhancing the movement of the international exchange and so more.
Cost is one of the important components in the tourism market and development of London. The country has providing best price for their visitors who are decide to visit the destination. With the help of tourism development, the cost is automatically increasing as well as country can gain high growth. The safety and security is vital which provide quality in tourism. The success and failure of the tourism place is mainly depending on able to provide secure and safe environment for travellers. This is important for London is to make sure about the safety because they need to provide best safety measures for their visitors who come for enjoy at such locations. With the best security, they can easily reach with higher growth and profitability level.
The tourism industry is experienced a series downfall in profitability and sales especially in the year of 2019. Economic recession will create major impact on tourism business operations and its functions so that a traveller ratio is reduced. London also face recession impact which are reduces their growth and profitability ratio. Along with this, Natural disaster is defining as such practice where visitors are analyzing such destination whenever they want to visit. This will create major impact in which tourist destination want some time to recover from terrorist attacks faster way. London has adopted advanced technology so this will protect them from any disaster and natural fear and all the people are feeling secure and safe. Change in climate can reduces snow cover, enhance and prolong heat waves and also alteration in rainfall. There are various types of tourism which are depending on weather and by extension. This is important for travel agent is to focus on climate change so that they can provide advice to the visitors in order to choose perfect destination where they are face any issue regarding climate change.
3.2 Analyze factors that may prevent hinder sustainable tourism development
There are some factors which are protecting effective operations of sustainable tourism in London that are as follows:
Natural environmental changes – London has developed some negative impacts such as attrition of beaches, humiliating of all resources, contamination and so more that are directly impact climates. It helps in protecting and preventing the sustainable tourism development in London.
Lack of local participation – It can be analyzed by Topdeck the local people of London who are only concerned in tourism such as customers, workers, and suppliers and they do not participate in the preparation of sustainable tourism under stakeholder theory that is impacting development (Muresan, et. al., 2016).
Social impacts – It can be analyzed that tourism has transported enriching pleasure in London civilization but the local people have to lodge from one place to another. The social trends are always changes due to change in people behavior or attitude so that Topdeck need to identify the changes performs operations as per the requirements.
3.3 Analyze different stages in planning for sustainability
The London government plays significant role in developing accurate policies and procedures for growth of these actions and sustainability in such areas. There are diverse phases in planning for sustainability that is described as under:
- At the first stage, they are planning for sustainable tourism which helps in identifies the improvement of services and facilities for visitors with preparation for usage of resources and organization of traveler relations in a better manner.
- Another stage is Topdeck is followed rule and policy which are based on supervision strategies to plan the method visitor that are obtainable different advantages as stay, correspondence and many more (Bunakov, et. al., 2015).
- In the next stage, they meet with tourists and provide them the best benefits to fulfill their needs and requirements.
- The London tourism business is mainly contributing to sustainability through the usage of resources and this helps limit the adverse impact of the tourists on society and the environment in a proper manner.
D2 Plan, manage and organize substantial activities and research in carrying issues and challenges of sustainable tourism development
It can be analyzed that sustainable activities and functions need to be properly managed and maintain by Topdeck company for the development of tourism. Along with this, it will assist in analyzing issues and challenges of sustainable tourism development which are faced by destination. Such issues involve social impact, lack of local people participation and changes in the environment (Zamfir and Corbos, 2015). This is mainly impacting on growth and development of the country as well as company success effectively. For this, the company management needs to analyze the whole situation before preparing a plan and organize the trip.
M3 Methods and techniques to analyze and present the various stages of sustainable tourism development
The qualitative method helps in analyzing and presenting the stages of sustainable tourism enlargement accurately. This will assist in collecting and gathering required data and information for tourism. Along with this, it is the technique that can be used for analyzing whole stages and situations of London in a better way and identifies growth areas. Also, the company can easily analyze the policies and procedures which are assisting in sustainable growth of tourism industry (Poudel, et. al., 2016). This will assist in attracting a large number of people towards a variety of services and locations.
4.1 Examine the issues of conflict of interest and evaluate the methods of resolving a conflict of interest.
An issue in the conflict of interest generally arises when the needs and preferences of two individuals do not match with each other. The major reasons for this type of conflict can be many and these can cause problems in achieving the goal inefficient manner. The major issue in a conflict of interest is when thinking of one individual does not match with the other. This means there are chances that the views of one individual in Topdeck may not match with others; this can give rise to issues and problems (Graci, 2013). Such types of problems can be resolved by agreeing on a common point. A specific process can also be established for resolving such kind of conflicts and problems.
4.2 Analyse the implications of sustainable tourism development.
Sustainable development in tourism is the process in which tourists can enjoy the nature and beauty of a specific destination while ensuring that any kind of harm is not caused by them to the natural resource. It is very much essential to implement sustainable development activities for conserving destinations of London. By doing this more and more tourist can get attracted to London. With the assist of sustainable development tourism the culture and environment of destination can be effectively maintained (Lee, 2013). By formulating effective plans for sustainable development economic conditions of London can also be maintained in an effective manner. For taking maximum benefit from this type of development long as well as short term plans can be made.
4.3 Evaluate the moral and ethical issues of developing and promoting enclave tourism.
Enclave tourism in London is generally concerned with tourist destination which is located in a little geographic region. The country people are adopting various cultures and follow such without any intervention of government. Due to various kinds of moral and ethical issue; proper development of commune tourism is not done. Individuals of the local area make uses of available resources in an ethical manner which causes direct harm to tourist spots (Saarinen, et, al., 2017). Ethically and morally it becomes the duty of local people and Top deck to implement effective plans for saving the enclave tourism in the best possible manner. Innovative techniques and methods can be used for maintaining the beauty of various tourist destinations in London.
D3 Being able to receptive and impartial to new ideas of resolving a conflict of interest in developing sustainable tourism.
New and innovative ideas can be used for resolving and reducing the chances of conflict of interest. Resolving such kinds of problems can directly lead to the achievement of targets for sustainable development. This is if individuals in Top deck do not any conflict of interest than better ideas can be implemented for conserving the destinations of London. Achieving this focus can be laid on involving the employees in the decision making process and their ideas and views can be taken into consideration. The use of latest technology can also be done for developing sustainable tourism in London.
5.1 Compare current issues related to tourism development at your chosen destination and an emerging destination
The tourism industry is one of the merging industry and many of the people like to visit to different places. The country London is currently facing many some of the problems associated to the expansion in tourism trends (Nowacki, et. al., 2018). On the other hand, one of the emerging tourism destination that is turkey also facing some certain issues related to development in tourism.
|London is one of those destinations which is liking by most of the tourists but in context of social-cultural segments country is facing issues related to housing and pollution.
|Turkey is another one of the major competitive destination of tourism. In the current time of period the destination is facing some certain issues related to the religious and ethnic cultural management.
|The country is facing many of the environmental issues which are related to the pollution and climate changes. These are some of the aspects which negatively impacting over the attainment of tourism management.
|Turkey is also facing some certain issues and challenges which are related to the climate change and land desecration which are negatively impacting on tourism management.
|London is one of the economically stable organization but in context of tourism aspects the country so facing some certain issues and challenges related to manage the economy trends.
|The country is currently facing issues related to the management of economic standards. As the business values are getting affected in the country.
5.2 Evaluate, with recommendations, the future development of tourism in both destinations.
|The destination needs to initiate some of the changes which are related to the social aspects as this is necessary to implement some strategies by the side of government which helps to remove the cultural challenges.
|This is majorly necessary for the government of destination china to initiate some certain modifications in the process ethical and religious considerations which helps to manage the tourism interest.
|To maintain the authenticity and management of the environmental aspects this is necessary to initiate some of the strategies which will be helpful to attain environmental benefits.
|The climate changes are natural terms but this is necessary to implement some certain weather management which helps to maintain the environmental aspects.
|To manage the economic trends this is necessary to implement some of the financial management strategies.
|This is necessary to implement some trends which helps to maintain the economic management.
D.3: Applied effective thinking and show evidence of receptiveness to new ideas and originality in recommending
The recommendations which had been mentioned above could be helpful to attain proper balancing and increment in the tourism in context of expanding in significant manner. That could be understood that if the government will take steps and initiate some of the amendments than it will be helpful to expand the market place (Kapera, 2018). On the other hand, the expansion in the facilities and services related to tourism will be helpful to expand the business as well as the growth of country in efficient manner. This is necessary for the countries to follow the recommendations in significant manner.
It can be analyzed that sustainable tourism development is a process that helps the company to fulfill all tourist’s needs and wants. The government and the society must involve in managing and maintaining different social, cultural, environmental and economic impacts on tourism sector. The future tourism of London mainly depends on effective planning and policy development by authority to bound the crimes, progress of infrastructure, running natural resources in a better manner. It can be defined as planning and implementing different strategies with the objective to develop the tourism sector. Tourism has become an essential industry of the market. The tourism industry not only helps in attracting a large number of visitors but also creates jobs in the country. Discussion aims to explain different approaches that are related to preparation and enlargement of sustainability with revere to London case study. Various issues and hurdles in planning sustainable practices in the tourism industry have to be discussed in this report.
- Amir, A.F., Ghapar, A.A., Jamal, S.A. and Ahmad, K.N., 2015. Sustainable tourism development: A study on community resilience for rural tourism in Malaysia. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 168, pp.116-122.
- Muresan, I., Oroian, C., Harun, R., Arion, F., Porutiu, A., Chiciudean, G., Todea, A. and Lile, R., 2016. Local residents’ attitude toward sustainable rural tourism development. Sustainability, 8(1), p.100.
- Bunakov, O.A., Zaitseva, N.A., Larionova, A.A., Chudnovskiy, A.D., Zhukova, M.A. and Zhukov, V.A., 2015. Research on the evolution of management concepts of sustainable tourism and hospitality development in the regions. Journal of Sustainable Development, 8(6), p.39.
- Zamfir, A. and Corbos, R.A., 2015. Towards sustainable tourism development in urban areas: Case study on Bucharest as tourist destination. Sustainability, 7(9), pp.12709-12722.
- Poudel, S., Nyaupane, G.P. and Budruk, M., 2016. Stakeholders’ perspectives of sustainable tourism development: A new approach to measuring outcomes. Journal of Travel Research, 55(4), pp.465-480.
- Lee, T.H., 2013. Influence analysis of community resident support for sustainable tourism development. Tourism management, 34, pp.37-46.
- Graci, S., 2013. Collaboration and partnership development for sustainable tourism. Tourism Geographies, 15(1), pp.25-42.
- Saarinen, J., Rogerson, C.M. and Hall, C.M., 2017. Geographies of tourism development and planning.
- Kapera, I., 2018. Sustainable tourism development efforts by local governments in Poland. Sustainable Cities and Society, 40, pp.581-588.
- Nowacki, M., Kowalczyk-Anioł, J., Królikowska, K., Pstrocka-Rak, M., &Awedyk, M. (2018). Strategic planning for sustainable tourism development in Poland. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology, 25(6), 562-567.
- Abdullah, Q.D.L. and Hamid, S.A., 2018. Public-Private Partnership (PPP) in Managing Arts, Cultural and Tourism Sector. Journal of Tourism, Hospitality and Culinary Arts, 10(1), pp.1-14.
- Arbulú, I., Lozano, J. and Rey-Maquieira, J., 2017. The challenges of tourism to waste-to-energy public-private partnerships. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 72, pp.916-921.
- Ibañez, J., Sebastia, L. and Onaindia, E., 2016, August. Planning tourist agendas for different travel styles. In Proceedings of the Twenty-second European Conference on Artificial Intelligence (pp. 1818-1823). IOS Press
- Lifesabutterely,2019 Importance of Tourism Planning (Online) Lifesabutterely Available at: https://www.lifeasabutterfly.com/why-tourism-development-planning-is-important/ Accessed on :24/10/2019
- Luzecka, P., 2016. “Take a gap year!” A social practice perspective on air travel and potential transitions towards sustainable tourism mobility. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 24(3), pp.446-462.
- Santos, F., Almeida, A., Martins, C., Oliveira, P. and Gonçalves, R., 2016, July. Tourism Recommendation System based in user’s profile and functionality levels. In Proceedings of the Ninth International C* Conference on Computer Science & Software Engineering (pp. 93-97). ACM.
- Signorile, P., Larosa, V. and Spiru, A., 2018. Mobility as a service: A new model for sustainable mobility in tourism. Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, 10(2), pp.185-200.
- Tandfonline,2019 Local Stakeholders( Online) Tandfonline, Available at: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13683500.2015.1078782 Accessed on :24/10/2019