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To identify role of Cyber security in banking sector.

Research objective

Research on informational technology plays an important role in security of banks and their sector. It is involving bank accounts to balance in account, secure by informational technology. There is huge number of coding program, password security and softwares applications for computational work security. There is usage of customer for mobile banking, internet banking, booking, digital wallet and ATM. 

Research questions

To identified IT role in organisational innovation and success

To determine Research philosophies for IT projects and bank approaches

To study about IT sector contribute to bank security 

Literature review

IT role in bank organisation on high level to low level like organisation designs, dashboards setup, digital profiles, planning, schemes, advertisement and company messages on customer mobile and emails of services. All services are in digital mode and technological mode for customer facilities. Bank services are used technology in confidential details in secure folders with history charts. Customer details, accounts, money reports, online transaction by mobile applications, internet banking, and software transaction and bank applications are in secure code system. It is not easy to break and assessable for anyone (Martins, et. al.,2014). 

In informational technology and organisational approaches together for customers for fast working is found in digital world. Large number of customers are used mobile banking and banks are used to secure folder and code for application security and customers details. Customer details are insecure with account details with not use by others (Bamrara, et. al., 2013).

Fast and easy to work style by using informational technology by customers are used frequently. It is also facilities and cyber crime increase in world of money transaction. Transaction details are captured by applications, softwares online that are blink on screen of laptop and work as transfer the data base of account. It is dangerous in case of login is not going to logout. There is system for login in bank account in online or software application that can be stopped in three minutes (Biener, et. al.,2015).

Login details are saved in password and account access are not for anyone in bank manager authorities. There are security types of question, finger prints, biometrics, face expressions and password in strong characters (Baikalov, et. al., 2016).

Informational technology has projects with online applications of shopping and banks tie up. Banking sector tie ups specific online shopping market are now in trends, which encourages customers to gain more benefits. Some banks offer cash backs and reward for shopping with their bank cards. Banking tie ups with Digital wallets are also trending. These all tie ups either bank to Digital wallet, Bank to Online market, Bank to Government online service apps like Railway e-tickets have encouraged customers to purchase online safer and economical (He, et. al., 2015). So customers are now relying on online market for shopping, services and many more online marketing. Faith in online marketing is developed in such a way that sometimes customer didn’t read the policies of digital market apps and they faithfully purchase items while using their bank cards.

It sectors in bank security as information alerts on mobile number. There are mobile number details in account of customer in bank but not on display. It is also IT application and reason for security. Pin code for ATM and money transactions are not fully displayed on blank place. ATM pin generates in register mobile and validated only for three minutes are security steps. Cameras and biometrics in bank for security reasons are found in banks (Keisidou, et. al.,2013). Management authority and administrations have security cameras monitors in office. Cyber security is found in networking of computers and internet access in all computers is linked by one. Because it is security check of any type of mislead in bank offices. Biometric and password system for unlock locker rooms.

Account accessible by customer or concern bank branches is also security of digital. All banks have security in account codes and reference numbers that can be detected customer identifications and their account detail with all data bases. Mobile numbers are registered with account details and it can be easily hacks of account if they are displayed. / By the cyber security it is not on fully displayed on account details and account number also in coding. There is branch code, bank code and last digits are account numbers that are in or the alphabetic form to hidden numbers (Karimi,,2015). 

Research methodology

Research methodology adopted step wise process –

Research data collection 

There are two sources for data collection one is primary and other is secondary.

Primary source of data– Banks and their cyber security reviews by customers and bank staff.

Secondary source of data– Banks and cyber security data and relation cases are available on internet and literatures.

Data interpretation– data is manipulated according to research need. The data is analysis and categorised for important study. It is outcome to importance of cyber security and customer relief for money in bank and technology uses. Type of cyber securities are safe banks and their networks with customers. There is instruction also on display that not share any password and card for anyone. There are no responsibilities of bank. There are also facilities of ATM card and pin is missed by customer that can be blocked account by bank in digital way. It is not in money transaction services and customer money will be safe (Karimi,,2015).

Data Analysis – Data is collected and divided in classes and folders. It is used group wise analysis of role of technology in banking security. Technology is helpful in security. It is also analysed cyber security is personal security for bank users (Keisidou, et. al.,2013).


Most of technology is used in bank work like facilities to customer for quick access, technology in mobile for bank transactions, ATM facilities and online transaction by application softwares. There is all work fast by technology called as informational technology. It is generated crime also in money transfer like password stolen and money transfer so data base of bank information come secure (He, et. al., 2015). It is termed as cyber security. It is most commonly used in Bank for digital work of transaction of money by shopping applications, softwares of bank for mobile banking, sms alert and internet banking. It is very vast topic to study because technology not only in progress for banks transactions but also progressive in cyber crime. It is break the security of accounts and money transfers in very small amount and not in noticeable form. It is included in cyber crime (Baikalov, et. al., 2016). It is popular in bank sector due to money directly involved. Many information technology company are work of create security for bank softwares and their management of networking access.

In case of fraud calls for ask pin number of ATM and account details of mobile numbers etc are track by cyber security. It can be in mentioned spam and fraud calls. It is help of customers to prevent thief in bank sectors. 

Ethical view

This Topic is choose randomly it is not concern from any organisation, information technology innovations, and softwares in particular way and not related to any bank case. It is simple and analysis research report for study purposes.


Significance of IT in bank sectors is in fast technology, bank account accessibility, mobile banking, check account transactions and statement in online copy etc. The bank is secure in network by password, security by cameras and records of customers in computational records (Biener, et. al.,2015).


Cyber security is beneficial as well as harmful in bank sectors like software crack by hackers, accounts security code crack and security passwords lick b customers in bank (Martins, et. al.,2014).


  • Martins, C., Oliveira, T. and Popovič, A., 2014. Understanding the Internet banking adoption: A unified theory of acceptance and use of technology and perceived risk application. International Journal of Information Management, 34(1), pp.1-13.
  • Bamrara, D., Singh, G., & Bhatt, M. (2013). Cyber Attacks and Defense Strategies in India: An Empirical Assessment of Banking Sector. Gajendra and Bhatt, Mamta, Cyber Attacks and Defense Strategies in India: An Empirical Assessment of Banking Sector (January 1, 2013).
  • Biener, C., Eling, M., & Wirfs, J. H. (2015). Insurability of cyber risk: An empirical analysis. The Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance-Issues and Practice, 40(1), 131-158.
  • Baikalov, I. A., Froelich, C., McConnell, T., & McGloughlin, J. P. (2016). U.S. Patent No. 9,516,041. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
  • He, W., Tian, X., & Shen, J. (2015, April). Examining Security Risks of Mobile Banking Applications through Blog Mining. In MAICS (pp. 103-108).
  • Keisidou, E., Sarigiannidis, L., Maditinos, D. I., & Thalassinos, E. I. (2013). Customer satisfaction, loyalty and financial performance: A holistic approach of the Greek banking sector. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 31(4), 259-288.
  • Karimi, S., Papamichail, K. N., & Holland, C. P. (2015). The effect of prior knowledge and decision-making style on the online purchase decision-making process: A typology of consumer shopping behaviour. Decision Support Systems, 77, 137-147.

Task 1 – Truth tables and logic circuit diagrams

Task 1A 

0 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 1
0 1 0 0 0
0 1 1 0 1
1 0 0 0 0
1 0 1 0 1
1 1 0 1 1
1 1 1 1 1

0 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 1 1
0 1 0 1 1
0 1 1 0 0
1 0 0 0 1
1 0 1 1 0
1 1 0 1 0
1 1 1 0 1

Task 1B

Task 1C

Do I see a clown Am I at circus Run away
0 0 0
0 1 0
1 0 1
1 1 0

Hungry Lunchtime Have food Should I eat
0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 1 0 0
0 1 1 0
1 0 0 0
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 1 1 1

Main switch Lamp 1 Lamp 2 A.B A.C
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0
0 1 0 0 0
0 1 1 0 0
1 0 0 0 0
1 0 1 0 1
1 1 0 1 0
1 1 1 1 1

Task 2 – Binary and representing integers

Task 2A

  • 2 bits

1 bit = 2 values

2 bits = 4 values

  • 1 byte

1 byte = 8 bits


= 256 values

  • 6 byte

6 byte = 48 bits

= 248

= 2.81 X 10 14

  • 128 bits = 2128

= 43.40 X 1038

Task 2B

  • 3
  • 7
  • 8
  • 12
  • 77

Task 2C

28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20
256 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
  • 10

= 1 X 21 + 0 X 20

= 2 + 0

= 2

  • 111

= 1 X 21 + 1 X 21 + 1 X 20

= 4 + 2+ 1

= 7

  • 1101

= 1 X 23 + 1 X 22 + 0 X 21+ 0 X 21+ 1 X 20

= 16 + 0 + 4 + 2 + 0

= 22

  • 10110

= 1 X 24 + 0 X 23 + 1 X 22 + 1 X 21+ 0 X 20

= 16 + 0 + 4 + 2 + 0

= 22

  • 100110

= 1 X 25 + 0 X 24 + 0 X 23 + 1 X 22 + 1 X 21+ 0 X 20

= 32 + 0 + 0 + 4 + 2 + 0

= 38

  • 1000100

= 1 X 26 + 0 X 25 + 0 X 24 + 0 X 23 + 1 X 22 + 0 X 21+ 0 X 20

= 64 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 4

= 68

Task 3 – Excel as a logic calculator

Task 3A


(Refer – logic_diagrams.xlsx)

Task 3 B


(Refer – logic_diagrams.xlsx)

Task 4 – Full Adder

Task 4 A

0 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 1 0
0 1 0 1 0
0 1 1 0 1
1 0 0 1 0
1 0 1 0 1
1 1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1 1

Task 4B

A1 B1 S1 C1
0 0 0 0
0 1 1 0
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 1
A2 B2 C1 S2 C2
0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1 0
1 0 0 1 0
1 1 1 1 1


  • Aberg, R. O., Raghavan, V., & Ren, Y. (2014). U.S. Patent No. 8,798,971. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
  • Gale, E., de Lacy Costello, B., & Adamatzky, A. (2013, July). Boolean logic gates from a single memristor via low-level sequential logic. In International Conference on Unconventional Computing and Natural Computation (pp. 79-89). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
  • Smessaert, H., & Demey, L. (2016, August). Visualising the Boolean Algebra $$\mathbb {B} _ {4} $$ in 3D. In International Conference on Theory and Application of Diagrams (pp. 289-292). Springer, Cham. 
  • Whitesitt, J. E. (2012). Boolean algebra and its applications. Courier Corporation.
  • Wilkins, C. (2012). Digital electronics and laboratory computer experiments. Springer Science & Business Media.

Post 2

ACS Code of ethics is the element of ACS constitution. As the member of this constitution I must advance and uphold the effectiveness, dignity and honour of being professional. As a good citizen I must adhere the following society values –

  • Honesty
  • Competence
  • Professionalism
  • Primacy of public interest
  • Professional development
  • Increment in quality life (ACS, 2020).

These are the components of ACS code of ethics. Now, to solve the ethical dilemma that we discussed above such as deontology, utilitarianism, social contract theory and character based ethical theory, I would suggest the IT professionals, surgeons and patients also to do act in accordance with the ACS codes of ethics. To become a good citizen of Australia every individual must adhere the principles or components discussed above. 

In honesty, the surgeon and IT professionals should be honest in terms of representing their knowledge, skills, products and services (ACS, 2020). 

With this ACs value, the surgeon and IT professionals would be able to distinguish between their personal opinions and professional opinions. 

In Competence, the surgeon and IT professional must apply their work diligently and competently for their stakeholders (patients).

With this ACS value, the surgeon and IT professionals will accept their responsibility regarding their professional activity. This will not permit both of them to misrepresent their knowledge and skills (Users, 2020). 

In professionalism, as a professional surgeon and IT professional they must increase the integrity and they should respect their patients.

This ACS value will help in continuous upgrade of knowledge and skills of surgeon and IT professional. This will also tell both that whether their work is affecting their profession and their relationships with others (Teaching, 2020). 

In Primacy of public interest, in this component of ACS code of ethics all the professionals must place public’s interest over their own personal, sectional and business interests. 

This value helps in identifying those individuals who are impacted by the work of surgeon and IT professional. This will help in identifying any type of conflict within the profession and the professional activity. 

In Professional development, the surgeons and professionals have to increase their own professional development and of their staff and colleagues as well.

This ACS value will help surgeon and IT professionals to take a calm, informed, knowledgeable and objective stand on their professional work. This will also help in endeavour o expand knowledge of public and their understanding on ICT.

In Increment in quality life, the surgeon and the IT professionals are responsible for struggling for the quality life which does not affect the others by your work (ACS, 2020). 

With this ACS value the surgeon and It professionals would be able to promote and protect the health and safety of those individuals who are affected by your professional activity. This will be helpful in getting personal satisfaction, control over those affected and competence.

When it comes to become a good citizen every person must adhere these principles of ACS code of ethics. This leads to peace, and good application of the knowledge and learning.

In situation of such dilemma between different values, Primacy of public interest obtains preference over other values. These ACS codes of conduct basically aim at someone as a practitioner individually and these codes of conduct will then be guidelines for the acceptable professional conduct. These guidelines will be applicable to the members of the ACS who are the surgeon and IT professional given in the case study. These codes of conduct will be helpful in dealing with such kind of dilemmas.  The ACS values discussed above will be helpful in resolving the dilemmas (Teaching, 2020).


  • ACS, (2020). About ACS CODE OF ETHICS. Available at – [Accessed on – 19 April 2020]. 
  • Wood-Black, F., & REM, M. (2016, August). What’s in a Code of Conduct?. In ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY (Vol. 252). 1155 16TH ST, NW, WASHINGTON, DC 20036 USA: AMER CHEMICAL SOC.
  • Teaching, (2020). About Australian Computer Society Code of Ethics. Teaching. Available at – [Accessed on – 20 April 2020]. 
  • Users, (2020). About Australian Computer Society CODE OF ETHICS. Users. Available at [Accessed on – 20 April 2020].

Requirements analysis and design

Use cases of the takeaway system with requirements

Use case name: See the menu, place the order and initiate the payment



Other managers and cooks


Many display system

Order management system

Payment gateway and billing system


The owner wants to explain and display all the contents of the menu, and the special packages. The customers should be able to select the packages, see the costs, and should be able to pay the cost of the selected dishes.


The users and customers have selected the food items and also purchased using the payment gateway.


  • The system can be used to place the order.
  • Users can know about their selected and ordered packages.
  • An estimation of the time to complete the order is also can be displayed.

Normal Flow

  • Ana will open the system.
  • She will be able to see the available food dishes, special packages and other offers with their prices.
  • She will select the dishes, and confirm their order.
  • Ana will be able to see the details of the payment amounts that were received from Pizzas and Pasta.
  • Ana will be able to see the details of the amount of the Pizzas and Pasta that were sold at that session.

UML diagrams

A use case diagram for processing and order

Development of the code

Functionality to process the ordering

Following points are described as the functionality of processing the orders:

Database Stock

It is a monthly update regarding the stock position. It will help Ana to know about the amount of the raw material as well as the prepared food that can be added in the packages too. This function will make the program efficient as it is one of the basic necessity to develop the program.

Sell-in Plan

It is an operation target that is used to aim the S&OP divisions which are related to the volume and amount of the order. This will be required to know the ordering quantity and manage the amount of food.

Recommendation of the PO

It is a document that contains the recommendation regarding the stock that is to be build up to manage the sell history and amounts of the sold food items. It has the introduction of the products and service of the system and business, the recommended sr=trategy to distribute and manage the order processing technique, the sales history. It is beneficial for the sales and operations department to get an idea about the targets and goals.

Confirmation of PO

The PO confirmation is an ordering document, which is also used for the communication between the distributor, sales department, and operation department. The number of orders and the amount of the product that is ordered are accessed and managed by this function.

The sales order

The sales order is the result of the confirmation process of the PO. The compliance checking process and process mapping are the features it can provide.

The delivery process of the orders

This is again the most important function that Ana needs in the system.twill teel her about the final payment details and the quantity of the product that is ordered by the customer and based on this information, Ana will proceed to add the packages for the customers. 

The script is as following:;







public class PizzaCentre {

public static void main(String[] args) {

System.out.println(“Welcome to Pizza Centre..”);

Scanner sc = new Scanner(;

inttotalPizzaInSession = 0;

inttotalPastaInSession = 0;

inttotalIncomeInSession = 0;

while(true) {

System.out.println(“Please select from the following options:”);

System.out.println(“1. Select Item”);

System.out.println(“2. Exit”);

String option = sc.nextLine();

if(!option.matches(“1|2”)) {

System.out.println(“You have selected incorrect option!!”);



if(option.equals(“1”)) {

inttotalPizza = 0;

inttotalPasta = 0;

inttotalPizzaPrice = 0;

inttotalPastaPrice = 0;

Map<String, FoodItem>foodItems = new HashMap<>();

booleanisPizzaAdded = false;

booleanisPastaAdded = false;

FoodItem pizza = null;

FoodItem pasta = null;

while(true) {

System.out.println(“Please select from the following items:”);

System.out.println(“1. Pizza”);

System.out.println(“2. Pasta”);

option = sc.nextLine();

if(!option.matches(“1|2”)) {

System.out.println(“You have selected incorrect option!!”);



System.out.println(“Enter the quantity of the item”);

int quantity = Integer.parseInt(sc.nextLine());

if(option.equals(“1”)) {

if(!isPizzaAdded) {

pizza = new Pizza();


totalPizzaInSession += quantity;

totalPizza += quantity;

isPizzaAdded = true;


foodItems.put(“pizza”, pizza);

}else if(option.equals(“2”)){

if(!isPastaAdded) {

pasta = new Pasta();


totalPastaInSession += quantity;

totalPasta += quantity;

isPastaAdded = true;


foodItems.put(“pasta”, pasta);


System.out.println(“Do you want to add more items? Y/N”);

option = sc.nextLine(); 

if(option.equalsIgnoreCase(“y”)) {


}else {

List<SideItem>sideItemList = null;

for(Entry<String, FoodItem> entry : foodItems.entrySet()) {


if(entry.getKey().equals(“pizza”)) {

totalPizzaPrice = entry.getValue().getTotalPrice();

}else if(entry.getKey().equals(“pasta”)) {

totalPastaPrice = entry.getValue().getTotalPrice();



isPizzaAdded = false;

isPastaAdded = false;

sideItemList = FoodItem.checkForAdditionalOffers(foodItems);

String sideItemsString = “”;

if(sideItemList!=null && !sideItemList.isEmpty()) {

Optional<String>itemString = ->x.getQuantity() + “-” + x.getName()).reduce((x,y) -> x+”,”+y);

sideItemsString = itemString.get();


totalIncomeInSession += totalPastaPrice + totalPizzaPrice;

System.out.println(“Your Order details are as follows: “);

System.out.println(“Total no. of Pizzas: ” + totalPizza);

System.out.println(“Total no. of Pastas: ” + totalPasta);

System.out.println(“Total sideItems: ” + sideItemsString);

System.out.println(“Total payment amount of pizza in the current order: ” + totalPizzaPrice);

System.out.println(“Total payment amount of pasta in the current order: ” + totalPastaPrice);

System.out.println(“Total pizzas ordered in this session: ” + totalPizzaInSession);

System.out.println(“Total pastas ordered in this session: ” + totalPastaInSession);

System.out.println(“Total income in this session: ” + totalIncomeInSession);




}else {

System.out.println(“Thanks for using this application..”);







public class Pizza implements FoodItem{


privateint quantity;


public void calculatePrice() {

switch(quantity) {

case 1:

totalPrice = 12;


case 2:

totalPrice = 22;



totalPrice = quantity*10;




publicintgetTotalPrice() {



publicintgetQuantity() {

return quantity;


public void setQuantity(int quantity) {

this.quantity = quantity;



public class Pasta implements FoodItem{


privateint quantity;


public void calculatePrice() {

switch(quantity) {

case 1:

totalPrice = 8;


case 2:

totalPrice = 15;



totalPrice = quantity*7;




publicintgetTotalPrice() {



publicintgetQuantity() {

return quantity;


public void setQuantity(int quantity) {

this.quantity = quantity;




GARLIC_BREAD(“Garlic Bread”,0,0), 

SOFT_DRINK(“Soft Drink”,0,0),


private String name;

privateint quantity;

privateint price;

SideItem(String name, int quantity, int price){ = name;

this.quantity = quantity;

this.price = price;


public String getName() {

return name;


public void setName(String name) { = name;


publicintgetQuantity() {

return quantity;


public void setQuantity(int quantity) {

this.quantity = quantity;


publicintgetPrice() {

return price;


public void setPrice(int price) {

this.price = price;







public interface FoodItem {

public void calculatePrice();

public static List<SideItem>checkForAdditionalOffers(Map<String, FoodItem>foodItems) {

intpizzaQuantity = 0;

intpastaQuantity = 0;

List<SideItem>sideItemList = new ArrayList<>(); 

for(Entry<String, FoodItem> entry : foodItems.entrySet()) {

if(entry.getKey().equals(“pizza”)) {

pizzaQuantity = entry.getValue().getQuantity();

}if(entry.getKey().equals(“pasta”)) {

pastaQuantity = entry.getValue().getQuantity();



if(pizzaQuantity>=3 || pastaQuantity>=3) {

int a = pizzaQuantity/3;

int b = pastaQuantity/3;

if(a>0) {

SideItemsideItem = SideItem.GARLIC_BREAD;




if(b>0) {

SideItemsideItem = SideItem.SOFT_DRINK;




int c = a < b? a: b;

if(pizzaQuantity>=3 &&pastaQuantity>=3) {

c = c==0? ++c : c;

SideItemsideItem = SideItem.BAKLAVA;








public void setQuantity(int quantity);



Pizza Corner


import java.util.ArrayList;

import java.util.List;

import java.util.Scanner;







public class PizzaCorner {

public static int sessionPizza = 0;

public static int sessionPasta = 0;

public static int sessionBilliAmount=0;

public static void main(String[] args) {

System.out.println(“Welcome to Pizza Kitchen!!!”);

System.out.println(“Please place your order here…”);

System.out.println(“***Today’s Special Offer, for every 3 Pizzas AND 3 Pasta Baklava (a famous dessert) is free***”);

Scanner sc = new Scanner(;

boolean icorrectInput=false;

BillingDO billingDO = new BillingDO();

Payments pizzaPayments = new PizzaPaymentsImpl();

Payments pastaPayments = new PastaPaymentsImpl();

while(true) {


if(!sc.hasNext(“[0-9]+”)) {

icorrectInput = true;

        System.out.println(“Not a valid input!Please try again.”);



int selection = sc.nextInt();

if(selection==1) {

System.out.println(“We are offering following packages for Pizza \n”+

“1 Large Pizza : 12 AUD \n”+

“2 Large Pizzas : 22 AUD \n”+

“3 or more Pizzas 10 AUD per unit compliemntary garlic bread \nfor every three pizzas”);

System.out.println(“Provide the number of Pizza to be ordered..”);

int noOfPizza = sc.nextInt();

billingDO = pizzaPayments.payment(noOfPizza,billingDO);

System.out.println(“Do you want to add anything?”);

}else if(selection==2) {

System.out.println(“We are offering following packages for Pasta \n”+

“1 Large Pasta : 8 AUD \n”+

“2 Large Pasta : 15 AUD \n”+

“3 or more Pastas 7 AUD per unit compliemntary Soft Drink(1.25 Liter) \nfor every three pastas”);

System.out.println(“Provide the number of Pasta to be ordered..”);

int noOfPasta = sc.nextInt();

billingDO = pastaPayments.payment(noOfPasta,billingDO);

System.out.println(“Do you want to add more items in your order?”);

}else if(selection==3) {

System.out.println(“Thanks for shopping with us..Enjoy your meal!!”);



int totalAmount =billingDO.getPizzaPrice()+billingDO.getPastaPrice();

sessionPizza = sessionPizza+billingDO.getQuantPizza();

sessionPasta = sessionPasta+billingDO.getQuantPasta();

sessionBilliAmount = sessionBilliAmount+totalAmount;

System.out.println(“Total Payment for Pasta Order: “+billingDO.getPastaPrice()+” AUD”);

System.out.println(“Total Payment for Pizza Order: “+billingDO.getPizzaPrice()+” AUD”);

System.out.println(“Total Bill: “+totalAmount+” AUD”);

System.out.println(“Total items: “);

System.out.println(billingDO.getQuantPizza()+” Pizza(s) “+billingDO.getQuantPasta()+” Pasta(s).”);

if(!billingDO.getComplimentary().isEmpty()) {

System.out.println(“Enjoy your complimentary items: “);

billingDO.getComplimentary().forEach((n) -> System.out.println(n));


System.out.println(“Session Pizza Order: “+sessionPizza);

System.out.println(“Session Pasta Order: “+sessionPasta);

System.out.println(“Session Total Amount: “+sessionBilliAmount+” AUD”);

billingDO = new BillingDO();




else if(selection==4) {

System.out.println(“Session Pizza Order: “+sessionPizza);

System.out.println(“Session Pasta Order: “+sessionPasta);

System.out.println(“Session Total Amount: “+sessionBilliAmount+” AUD”);

System.out.println(“Thanks for visiting Pizza Kitchen!!”);


}else {

System.out.println(“Provided input is incorrect.Please provide a valid value from below choices.”);






public static void menu() {

System.out.println(“1. Pizza”);

System.out.println(“2. Pasta”);

System.out.println(“3. Generate Bill & Continue with App”);

System.out.println(“4. Exit”);


public static BillingDO checkComplimentary(BillingDO billingDO) {

List<String> compItems = new ArrayList<>();

ComplimentaryPizza complimentary = new ComplimentaryPizza();

ComplimentaryPasta complimentaryPasta = new ComplimentaryPasta();



if(billingDO.getQuantPasta()>=3 && billingDO.getQuantPizza()>=3) {




return billingDO;



Functionality to process the orders of various amount

Billing Do


import java.util.List;

public class BillingDO {

private int pizzaPrice;

private int quantPizza;

private int quantPasta;

private int pastaPrice;

private List<String> complimentary;

public int getPizzaPrice() {

return pizzaPrice;


public void setPizzaPrice(int pizzaPrice) {

this.pizzaPrice = pizzaPrice;


public int getPastaPrice() {

return pastaPrice;


public void setPastaPrice(int pastaPrice) {

this.pastaPrice = pastaPrice;


public int getQuantPizza() {

return quantPizza;


public void setQuantPizza(int quantPizza) {

this.quantPizza = quantPizza;


public int getQuantPasta() {

return quantPasta;


public void setQuantPasta(int quantPasta) {

this.quantPasta = quantPasta;


public List<String> getComplimentary() {

return complimentary;


public void setComplimentary(List<String> complimentary) {

this.complimentary = complimentary;



Additional Package 1


import java.util.ArrayList;

import java.util.List;


public class Complimentary {

public String complimentaryPizzaPasta(BillingDO billingDO) {

List<String> comp =new ArrayList<>();

comp.add(“Baklava (Dessert)”);

String complimentary=””;

int noOfBaklava =0;

int pasta =0;

int pizza =0;

if(billingDO.getQuantPasta()>=3) {

pasta = billingDO.getQuantPasta() / 3;


if(billingDO.getQuantPizza()>=3) {

pizza = billingDO.getQuantPizza() / 3;


if(pizza>=1 && pasta>=1) {

if(pizza>pasta) {

noOfBaklava = pasta;

}else if(pasta>pizza) {

noOfBaklava = pizza;

}else if(pasta==pizza) {

noOfBaklava = pasta;


complimentary = noOfBaklava+” “+comp.get(0);


return complimentary;



Additional Package 2


import java.util.ArrayList;

import java.util.List;


public class ComplimentaryPasta extends Complimentary{

public String complimentaryPasta(BillingDO billingDO) {

List<String> compPizza =new ArrayList<>();

compPizza.add(“Soft Drink(s) – 1.25 Liter”);

String complimentary=””;

int drinks = 0;

if(billingDO.getQuantPasta()>=3) {

drinks = billingDO.getQuantPasta() / 3;


complimentary = drinks+” “+compPizza.get(0);

return complimentary;



Additional Package 3


import java.util.ArrayList;

import java.util.List;


public class ComplimentaryPizza extends Complimentary{

public String complimentaryPizza(BillingDO billingDO) {

List<String> compPizza =new ArrayList<>();

compPizza.add(“Garlic Bread(s)”);

int garlicBreads = 0;

String complimentary;

if(billingDO.getQuantPizza()>=3) {

garlicBreads = billingDO.getQuantPizza() / 3;


complimentary = garlicBreads+” “+compPizza.get(0);

return complimentary;






public interface Payments {

BillingDO payment(int quantity, BillingDO billingDO);


A progressive payments menu option that displays the total income received

from both the items (pizza & pasta) individually and the total income from all


Payments for Pizza



public class PizzaPaymentsImpl implements Payments{


public BillingDO payment(int quantity, BillingDO billingDO) {

int quant = billingDO.getQuantPizza()+quantity;

int price=0;

if(billingDO.getQuantPizza()==0) {


}else {



if(quant==1) {

price = 12;

}else if(quant==2) {

price = 22;

}else if(quant>=3) {

price = quant*10;



return billingDO;



Payments for Pasta



public class PastaPaymentsImpl implements Payments{


public BillingDO payment(int quantity, BillingDO billingDO) {

int quant = billingDO.getQuantPasta()+quantity;

int price=0;

if(billingDO.getQuantPasta()==0) {


}else {



if(quant==1) {

price = 8;

}else if(quant==2) {

price = 15;

}else if(quant>=3) {

price = quant*7;



return billingDO;




<?xml version=”1.0″ encoding=”UTF-8″?>

















Class Path

<?xml version=”1.0″ encoding=”UTF-8″?>


<classpathentry kind=”con” path=”org.eclipse.jdt.launching.JRE_CONTAINER/org.eclipse.jdt.internal.debug.ui.launcher.StandardVMType/JavaSE-1.8″/>

<classpathentry kind=”src” path=”src”/>

<classpathentry kind=”output” path=”bin”/>


Settings pre requirement













Code demonstrating the use of an interface and polymorphism to handle the item

fires and the various item options available

Billing of orders

Billing in the Same session

Invalid input from the choice 

Invalid input from the choice 

Reflection on learning

The information that is required to complete this assessment and the tasks are collected and the concepts are developed and learned on a practical basis. The man interesting learning that I gained from completing this assignment is that the basic concepts are used in the practical approach and to solve a problem similar to the real-life issue. The interesting details and the techniques to identify the use cases before implementing and preparing the programming for developing an application or such system as it is described in the assignment. The requirements that play a major role to define and identify the use cases are studied and the other details and important features are also reviewed. The main purpose of the UML diagrams is to understand. After knowing the main function of the UML diagrams, the detailed diagrams are prepared that represent the Use cases, classes, and sequence of the processes and operation that complete the customers’ orders. The code is developed and the programming is done as per the requirements of the system that Ana wants to implement. The object-oriented programming language JAVA is used for the development of the code and the systems to display the men and the ament details. Thus this assessment helped to understand the theoretical concepts like polymorphism and uses of classes in the practical learning exercise.


  • Chavan, V., Jadhav, P., Korade, S., & Teli, P. (2015). Implementing customizable online food ordering system using web based application. International Journal of Innovative Science, Engineering & Technology2(4), 722-727.
  • Susanto, T., Djamaris, A. R., & Azkia, N. (2016). Process Analysis on Order Processing Function to Reduce Order Processing Time: Indonesian Context. International Journal of Research in Management & Technology (IJRMT), 76-89.
  • Tanpure, S. S., Shidankar, P. R., & Joshi, M. M. (2013). Automated food ordering system with real-time customer feedback. International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering3(2).

Create a new database.

— phpMyAdmin SQL Dump

— version 5.0.2


— Host:

— Generation Time: Apr 23, 2020 at 06:55 PM

— Server version: 10.4.11-MariaDB

— PHP Version: 7.4.4



SET time_zone = “+00:00”;




/*!40101 SET NAMES utf8mb4 */;

— Database: `myuniversity`

CREATE DATABASE IF NOT EXISTS `myuniversity` DEFAULT CHARACTER SET utf8mb4 COLLATE utf8mb4_general_ci;

USE `myuniversity`;

Create the tables

— Indexes for dumped tables

— Indexes for table `class`



  ADD KEY `FK2` (`LectureID`),

  ADD KEY `FK1` (`CourseID`),

  ADD KEY `FK3` (`RoomID`);

— Indexes for table `course`

ALTER TABLE `course`


— Indexes for table `lecturer`

ALTER TABLE `lecturer`

  ADD PRIMARY KEY (`LecturerID`),

  ADD UNIQUE KEY `LecturerID` (`LecturerID`);

— Indexes for table `room`



  ADD UNIQUE KEY `RoomID` (`RoomID`);

— AUTO_INCREMENT for dumped tables

— AUTO_INCREMENT for table `class`



— Constraints for dumped tables

— Constraints for table `class`



  ADD CONSTRAINT `FK2` FOREIGN KEY (`LectureID`) REFERENCES `lecturer` (`LecturerID`),


— Metadata

USE `phpmyadmin`;

— Metadata for table class

— Metadata for table course

— Metadata for table lecturer

— Metadata for table room

— Metadata for database myuniversity

— Dumping data for table `pma__pdf_pages`

INSERT INTO `pma__pdf_pages` (`db_name`, `page_descr`) VALUES

(‘myuniversity’, ‘schema’);


— Dumping data for table `pma__table_coords`

INSERT INTO `pma__table_coords` (`db_name`, `table_name`, `pdf_page_number`, `x`, `y`) VALUES

(‘myuniversity’, ‘class’, @LAST_PAGE, 402, 143),

(‘myuniversity’, ‘course’, @LAST_PAGE, 638, 31),

(‘myuniversity’, ‘lecturer’, @LAST_PAGE, 640, 137),

(‘myuniversity’, ‘room’, @LAST_PAGE, 651, 231);

— Dumping data for table `pma__pdf_pages`

INSERT INTO `pma__pdf_pages` (`db_name`, `page_descr`) VALUES

(‘myuniversity’, ‘schema2’);


— Dumping data for table `pma__table_coords`

INSERT INTO `pma__table_coords` (`db_name`, `table_name`, `pdf_page_number`, `x`, `y`) VALUES

(‘myuniversity’, ‘class’, @LAST_PAGE, 402, 143),

(‘myuniversity’, ‘course’, @LAST_PAGE, 638, 31),

(‘myuniversity’, ‘lecturer’, @LAST_PAGE, 640, 137),

(‘myuniversity’, ‘room’, @LAST_PAGE, 651, 231);

Create the relationships between the tables

— ——————————————————–

— Table structure for table `class`


CREATE TABLE `class` (

  `classID` int(11) NOT NULL,

  `CourseID` varchar(8) NOT NULL,

  `LectureID` int(11) NOT NULL,

  `RoomID` varchar(4) NOT NULL,

  `Day` char(4) NOT NULL,

  `Time` time(3) NOT NULL,

  `Length` int(11) NOT NULL



—   `CourseID`

—       `course` -> `CourseID`

—   `LectureID`

—       `lecturer` -> `LecturerID`

—   `RoomID`

—       `room` -> `RoomID`

— Dumping data for table `class`

INSERT INTO `class` (`classID`, `CourseID`, `LectureID`, `RoomID`, `Day`, `Time`, `Length`) VALUES

(2483, ‘ENG402’, 1234, ‘A24’, ‘mond’, ’11:00:18.000′, 9),

(7128, ‘MAT401’, 7890, ‘B26’, ‘tues’, ’15:00:18.000′, 7);

Viewing the relationships between tables: WampServer also provides a way to view the relationships between the tables.

— ——————————————————–

— Table structure for table `course`


CREATE TABLE `course` (

  `CourseID` varchar(9) NOT NULL,

  `CourseName` text NOT NULL,

  `Description` text NOT NULL,

  `CreditPoints` int(11) NOT NULL



— Dumping data for table `course`

INSERT INTO `course` (`CourseID`, `CourseName`, `Description`, `CreditPoints`) VALUES

(‘ENG402’, ‘ENGLISH’, ‘English Literature class.’, 10),

(‘MAT401’, ‘MATHS’, ‘Mathematical class’, 10);

Inserting data into a table

— ——————————————————–

— Table structure for table `lecturer`


CREATE TABLE `lecturer` (

  `LecturerID` int(11) NOT NULL,

  `LecturerFirstname` text NOT NULL,

  `LecturerSurname` text NOT NULL



— Dumping data for table `lecturer`

INSERT INTO `lecturer` (`LecturerID`, `LecturerFirstname`, `LecturerSurname`) VALUES

(1234, ‘Evan’, ‘Woods’),

(7890, ‘Olivia’, ‘Patrick’);

— ——————————————————–

— Table structure for table `room`



  `RoomID` varchar(4) NOT NULL,

  `RoomType` text NOT NULL,

  `Building` varchar(4) NOT NULL



— Dumping data for table `room`

INSERT INTO `room` (`RoomID`, `RoomType`, `Building`) VALUES

(‘A24’, ‘Single’, ‘ABC’),

(‘B26’, ‘Double’, ‘xyz’);


  • Dev.mysql, 2020. About Creating and Selecting a Database. Dev.mysql. Available at – [Accessed on – 25 April 2020].
  •, 2020. About A Basic MySQL Tutorial. Available at – [Accessed on – 25 April 2020].
  • Docs.kony, 2020. About Database Setup Guide-MySQL. Docs.kony. Available at – [Accessed on – 25 April 2020].
  •, 2020. About MySQL Database Installation and Configuration for Advanced Management Console.  Available at – [Accessed on – 25 April 2020].
  • Downloads.mysql, 2020. About MySQL Tutorial. Downloads.mysql. Available at – [Accessed on – 25 April 2020].

Introduction and description of project background

A business case refers to the first expected outcome in the life cycle of IT projects. It provides an assessment of the feasibility, value, benefits, risks and costs of various suggested options or alternatives to an organization (Panwar et al., 2017). The report shall present a business case based on Port Fairy Caravan and Camping Park. The company, which is based in Port Fairy, offers customers a wide range of options for accommodation such as non-motorized and motorized camping sites, recently renovated cabins consisting of a toilet, lounge, and kitchenette and shower room. The project undertaken by South West Advertising Inc. aims to analyze as well as evaluate the company’s e-marketing strategies by reviewing all e-marketing channels such as online newsletters, advertising on Google and social media, posts on community website and community notice boards.  

Description of project objectives (including link to organisational mission statement)

The purpose of the project based on Port Fairy Caravan and Camping Park is to analyse the e-marketing strategy of the company. The evaluation must also provide details of a review and investigation into all e-marketing channels used by the company at present such as online newsletters, social media advertising, mobile app, and other platforms (Chaffey & Ellis-Chadwick, 2019). Furthermore, the project shall also provide a list of changes that are to be made in the bookings, ROI and comparison with key competitors, for each of the e-marketing channel used by Port Fairy Caravan Park. The director of Port Fairy, Jerry Maguire has realized that the digital marketing strategy of the company is extremely costly and therefore wants to review it for determining the most cost-friendly yet impactful approach to promote the park’s facilities on various online advertising platforms. This is even more urgent for the company since its mission is to be the leading camping and holiday spot for tourists at an affordable price range for packages (, 2020). 

Description of the current situation (including a SWOT analysis)

A SWOT analysis of the present situation at Port Fairy with regard to its e-marketing strategy review project has been presented. 


  • The project is expected to derive the most impactful and economical approach to the digital marketing strategy implemented by Port Fairy Caravan Park 
  • The project is expected to make a minimum of 25% ROI.

  • Due to the difference in educational background, ideals, and skills of people on sports-related projects and those who work on new caravanning and camping projects, the project is on a weak ground. 
  • This difference has led to many employees not in full agreement with South West’s new strategies of concentrating on increasing profits by entering new markets.

  • The project can review already-available information, carry out research and collect new material about the markets that are to be tapped in order to help employees gain insights about the new changes in the strategy.
  • For ensuring the success of the tender bid, the project manager can evaluate the digital marketing strategy, review the current digital presence of Port Fairy and other such details in order to come up with the most economical and cost-effective e-marketing strategy for the company (Wirtz & Zeithaml, 2018)  

    • The shift to focus more on increasing profits by tapping into new markets can be quite challenging for South West, which predominantly focuses on the evaluation and development of e-marketing strategies for sporting companies (Hollensen, 2019).
  • Threats can arise not only from key stakeholders such as employees but also from the suppliers due to the abrupt change in the company’s strategies. 

Table 1: SWOT analysis of the current situation

Outline of problem/opportunity statement

The project aims to come up with the most cost-effective strategy for digital marketing for the company, Port Fairy that shall help the company’s director, Jerry Maguire to invest more on improving and optimising the facilities provided by the parks. The biggest expected opportunity of the project is that it shall lead to a minimum of 25% ROI. However, the company that has been chosen by him for this purpose, South West primarily focuses on evaluating digital marketing strategies for sports enterprises. The CEO of the firm wants to change the currently followed strategy by tapping into other markets such as reviewing digital marketing strategy of a caravanning company, Port Fairy. This move is expected to create numerous problems for the company due to the vast difference in the education and skills of the employees working on sporting companies and camping marketing projects. 

Details of critical assumptions and constraints

With this project, it is assumed that the current costs and expenses involved in the online marketing strategy of Port Fairy would be minimised and the most impactful approach to market the services and facilities of the parks would be formulated. Furthermore, it is also assumed that the project shall earn a minimum of 25% ROI. Moreover, since the project evaluation will require data to support the findings and discussion made while reviewing the existing digital marketing strategies of the firm, it is assumed that this data and information would be gained through conducting surveys of the vacationers and reviewing and evaluating the financial records and bookings (Das et al., 2019). 

However, the challenges are in the form of resistance from employees of South West Advertising who may not agree with the CEO, Bob Sugar’s interest in increasing the profits of the company by tapping into new markets, such as caravanning and camping marketing projects. Furthermore, the stark differences in the skill sets of the employees working on evaluating sporting firms’ e-marketing strategies and those of camping ones shall also constitute major constraints

An analysis of options and recommendations

In order to overcome the potential challenges discussed above, South West Advertising would be required to gain significant knowledge and information about the current e-marketing channels used by Port Fairy. This is to be followed by convincing the employees who are unwilling to welcome the change in strategy to look at the finer sides of the new strategy in terms of the profits that shall be earned if the projects are successful (Noe & Kodwani, 2018). Lastly, training programs and workshops can be organised in order to train the employees to develop the basic skills that are required by them for evaluating camping e-marketing channels and strategies. 

financial analysis (npv, roi and payback figures)


Discount rate 9.00%          
Assume the project is completed in Year 0     Year      
  0 1 2 3 Total  
Costs 90,000 20,000 20,000 15,000    
Discount factor 1.00 0.92 0.84 0.77    
Discounted costs                     90,000            18,400          16,800            11,550  1,36,750   
Benefits 0 90,000 1,30,000 1,50,000    
Discount factor 1.00 0.92 0.84 0.77    
Discounted benefits 0           82,800        1,09,200        1,15,500  3,07,500   
Discounted benefits – costs                   (90,000)           64,400          92,400        1,03,950 
Cumulative benefits – costs                   (90,000)
        66,800        1,70,750     
  Payback in Year 1      

Table 1: NPV


        Present value
Year Cost Benefit Net cash flow at DF 80% at DF 90%
0 -90000 0 -90000 -90000 -90000
1 -20000 90000 70000 38888.5 36842.4
2 -20000 130000 110000 33950.4 30471.1
3 -15000 150000 135000 23148.45 19681.65
      Total 5987.35 -3004.85

Table 2: IRR

IRR = 80+(90-80)*5987.35/{5987.35-(-3004.85)}

        = 86.66%

Payback Period

Year Costs Benefits Cum Costs Cum Benefits
0 90,000 0 90,000 0
1 20,000 90,000 1,10,000 90,000
2 20,000 1,30,000 1,30,000 2,20,000
3 15,000 1,50,000 1,45,000 3,70,000

Table 3: Payback period

Figure 1: Payback period

From the above calculation it can be seen that NPV of project in three months is going to be $170,750. IRR of the project is expected to be 86.66%. Payback period is going to 1 year. All these results are showing positive outcomes of new project. These tools are used to identify potential risks and profitability of project before making investment. 

NPV shows the current value of money after a specific time. NPV is reflecting that value of project after 3 months would be $170,750. It means value is going to increase from $144,540 to $170,750. IRR shows the earnings from an investment on periodic basis. Rate of return is 86.66% it means project would earn $ 86.66 on spending each $100. Payback period shows the duration in which cost of an investment project would be recovered. Company can invest in new project as it would be profitable for company in future. 

Preliminary project requirements (project preliminary scope)

Project Justification Project is created to analyse Port fairy Carvan and Camping park pty Ltd e marketing strategy. It will also include the evaluation of all e marketing channels.
Product Description It would include evaluation of e marketing strategy, examination of current target market through survey and research. Information would be gathered from customers, market and employees about the new strategy.
Project deliverables a) Digital marketing strategy evaluation b) Research about customer profile C) analysis of digital channel d) evaluation of messaging strategy e) review of marketing ROI and recommendation for new e marketing strategy.
Project objective Objective is to evaluate e commerce strategy for Port fairy Carvan and identify ROI, NPV and PP. Motive is to complete project on time within budget.
Out of scope items Internal information of company such as traditional marketing and finances are out of scope items. All employees cannot be surveyed.
Cost objective Total estimated cost for project has been kept 

 $145,000. Therefore, activities would be allocated as per the budgeted amount.

Schedule objective Three months or 12 weeks have been considered for the completion of project.
Acceptance criteria Acceptance criteria reflects that timely completion and within budget. Payment rate would be $80 p/hr for project team and consultant pay is negotiable.
Constraints Disagreement among several employees with company’s new strategy. Consultant pay rates are also negotiable and it can be constraint.
Assumptions Initial investment in project is assumed to be 

 $90,000 and ROI is assumed to be 125%.

Table 4: preliminary project requirements

Budget estimate (cost model and baseline)

  # Units/Hrs. Cost/Unit/Hr. Subtotals WBS Level 1 Totals % of Total
WBS Items          
1. Project Management       $21,100  15%
  1.1 Project manager 100 $50  $5,000     
  1.2 Project team members 100 $80  $8,000     
  Contractors (10% of software development and testing)     $8,100     
2. Hardware       $9,000  6%
    2.1  Handheld devices 60 $100  $6,000     
    2.2  Servers 3 $1,000  $3,000     
3. Software       $73,750  51%
    3.1 Licensed software 25 $150  $3,750     
    3.2 Software development*     $70,000     
4. Testing (10% of total hardware and software costs)     $11,000  $11,000  8%
5. Training and Support       $16,550  11%
    5.1 Trainee cost 60 $120  $7,200     
    5.2 Travel cost 9 $150  $1,350     
    5.3 Project team members 100 $80  $8,000     
6. Reserves (10% of total estimate)     $13,140  $13,140  9%
          Total project cost estimate       $1,44,540   

Table 5: Budget

Budget of 145,000 has been decided for the project therefore all the necessary costs are allocated as per the current rates and resource requirement in budget. 10% of total estimate has would be kept as contingency reserve. Project management, hardware, software and training costs are included in budget. Major part of budget is going to be spent on hardware as it is crucial part of project.

Schedule estimate (including work breakdown structure level 3)

Scheduled estimates of all project activities have been shown in the image. Each activity has been allocated with estimated time for accomplishment. This organisation would help in managing work as schedule and priority. E marketing evaluation strategy is prime activity and other activities are supporting activities. These support activities would take place one after another.

List of potential risks

Potential risks are mentioned below:

  • Resistance from employees to adapt with new policy. Lack of employee support can lead to failure of project.
  • Changing market environment can affect the strategies and evaluation.
  • Incorrect assumptions can affect the effectiveness of project.
  • Increasing cost of resources can increase the budgeted cost for project.
  • It is a time consuming process therefore it can take more than three months to complete the project.
  • Conflicts regarding pay rates can be arise.


Thus it can be concluded that e commerce strategies in business help in reaching large number of customers in low cost. However these e commerce projects require time and cost. It can be seen from the case study that a project for evaluation of e marketing strategy has been proposed. There are various functions involved with project as budget, risks, financial analysis and recommendations. Return from investment in new project is expected to profitable and all the activities are allocated as per budget and time. There are risks of conflicts and disagreement during the project. It is also seen that activities are divided in work breakdown structure level three.


Chaffey, D., & Ellis-Chadwick, F. (2019). Digital marketing. Pearson UK.

Das, H. R., Rao, P. S., Kamath, G. B., & Prasad, H. S. (2019). Influence of E-Marketing Strategy on Customer Satisfaction. International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering, 8(9 Special Issue 3), 289-292.

Hollensen, S. (2019). Marketing management: A relationship approach. Pearson Education.

Noe, R. A., & Kodwani, A. D. (2018). Employee Training and Development, 7e. McGraw-Hill Education.

Panwar, R., Nybakk, E., Hansen, E., & Pinkse, J. (2017). Does the business case matter? The effect of a perceived business case on small firms’ social engagement. Journal of Business Ethics144(3), 597-608. (2020). Port Fairy Caravan Parks | Quality Holiday Accommodation & Camping. Retrieved 4 May 2020, from

Wirtz, J., & Zeithaml, V. (2018). Cost-effective service excellence. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 46(1), 59-80.


Project management is the presentation of information, services, measures, and approaches applied to project actions so that the organization can fulfill essentials of the project. The history of the project management studies incorporates detailed growth in profession year by year. Project management methods are being used for decades while the documentation and the standardization took place later on for the customized projects. The history of project management methods’ has substantial value for choosing the right method on the right project.



To understand the project management, “Project” needs to be clarified for better clearance on the project management.

A project can be short-term work started to create and develop a unique product, service, or outcome. Every project defines the work has a beginning and the end both. The beginning is where the idea is been generated and the end would be the result, is the objective of the idea is achieved and the existence of the project with the accomplishment or termination.

Project Management

Project management is the keyword implemented for the knowledge of implementation way for the success of any teamwork. Few studies says that this word “Project Management” is being used since the 19th century (Chofreh, et. al., 2016). Project management is an idea used by engineers and architects for long, it may be before civilization. Nowadays, Project management is an essential chunk of any organization to walk on the success path. It has immense specifications and details for the operation and fruitful achievement.

The old pyramids, The Great Wall of China, and Coliseum are the true models of project management. These unique structures are not been in existence without the people or team in charge of managing them. A study for the completion of vast projects showcases that the work had been assigned to different assemblies with different sorts to accomplish the task and achieve desired results. However, the outcome was not that strong in the imagination. 


There is no perfect or solid evidence or documentation for the start of the project management. After researches and studies, the history of the Project management starts as follows:

  • 2570 BC: The Great Pyramid of Giza’s structure

Emperors structured the pyramids and in present scenario the architects, studying and researching how they have managed to start the amazing monument, executed the idea and then attained the end of the project. This shows the project management skills in an earlier era (Chofreh, et. al., 2016).

  • 208 BC: The Great Wall of China’s creation

Alternative wonder of the world, the planning, and execution of the project were organized by king by diving the team into three groups and thousands of people were ordered to help the construction team to comprehensive this huge project. 

  • 1917: The Gantt chart Established by Henry Gantt (1861-1919)

Founder and inventor of The Gantt chart, Henry Gantt created the scheduling diagrams on his name. The innovative idea is still considered as a vital part of the toolkit of project managers’

  • 1956: The American Association of Cost Engineers (now AACE International) Formed

AACE was founded by experts of earlier times, project management and connected domains of designing and scheduling, estimation of cost, cost, and schedule control (Too & Weaver, 2014).

  • 1957: The Critical Path Method (CPM) Developed by the Dupont Corporation

CPM formed by Dupont for the management of huge power plant maintenance. An approach to analyze timeframe of any project that is scheduling the task on plants along with the shutting downtime of plants while the project running.

  • 1958: The Program Evaluation Review Technique (PERT) Developed for the U.S. Navy’s Polaris Project

PERT was designed special projects office which was element of department of defence of US Navy. It was known to be element of the Polaris mobile submarine-propelled ballistic missile project in times of the cold war (Silvius & Schipper, 2014). 

  • 1962: United States Department of Defence Mandate the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Approach

WBS created by the division of Defence as part of the Polaris mobile submarine-propelled ballistic missile project. It is an extensive, graded hierarchy organization of deliverables and work that must be executed to undertake a project

1965: The International Project Management Association (IPMA) Founded

First of the project management organisation is known to be IPMA. It was formed as a meeting for the link of project manager’s and sharing data (Pinto, 2014). Organisation is known to be federation of overall fifty domestic and globally based project management organisations and also it is authorised in Switzerland. 

1969: Project Management Institute (PMI) Launched to Promote the Project Management Profession

PMI was known to be originated by five individuals as a non-for-profit entity and is dedicated to spread the practice, science, and project management as a profession. An article created by The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania for Merger for PMI in 1969, which was the authorised initiation. 

1975: PROMPTII Method Created by Simpact Systems Limited

Structure of PROMPTII was basically for the computer projects as the projects were delayed over time investigated for execution and real budgets as mentioned in practicability studies (Silvius & Schipper, 2014).

  • 1975: The Mythical Man-Month: Essays on Software Engineering by Fred Brooks

The book “software engineering and project management” by Fred Brooks, showcases fact “Addition of manpower to a late software project designs it afterwards.” This ideology is called law of Brooks’s. 

1984: Theory of Constraints (TOC) Presented by Dr. Eliyahu M. Goldratt in his Novel “The Goal”

A clear sign on the title, TOC is a management viewpoint that supports any organization to successfully achieve the goals (Pinto, 2014). The TOC procedure searches to identify the limitation or obstacles in the projects and streamline the remaining of the organization’s tasks with application of Five Focusing Steps

1986 Scrum Named as a Project Management Style

Scrum is known to be an agile software development technique oriented on numerous small groups functioning in an exhaustive and mutually dependent form. ‘The New Product Development Game’ (Harvard Business Review, 1986) Takeuchi and Nonaka gave name as Scrum as a project management technique in their paper. 

1987: A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) Published by PMI

PMBOK is a guide for the standard tools and proper documentation of information and facts of project management practices. This guide is an essential tool in the project management profession since then it has become the globally used standard in the industry (Fleming & Koppelman, 2016, December). 

1989: Earned Value Management (EVM) Leadership Elevated to Undersecretary of Defense for Acquisition

EVM framework was used in factory management systems since the early 19th century. EVM leadership was raised to the Undersecretary of Defense for Acquisition, thereby making EVM an primary aspect of programme management. 

1989: PRINCE Method Developed From PROMPTII

PRINCE method was issued by the UK Government agency CCTA, PRojects IN Controlled Environments (PRINCE). It is known to be popular as the benchmark for all government system projects, a unique real approach, basically the ideology of ‘assuring development’ from three identical but connected views. Studies say, the measure is ungainly, too stiff, and applies only for the large projects. 

  • 1994: CHAOS Report First Published

The Standish Group formed for the collection of the information and details on any of the project failures in the IT industry (Panou, Mar 2018). The CHAOS report is the regular issue regarding IT project failure, this leads learning from the failure of others and discovering more methods to enhance on accomplishment rate and raising the worth of IT investments. 

  • 1996: PRINCE2 Published by CCTA

A second edition on PRINCE method, more standardized and applicable to any project announced by the primary computer and Telecommunications Agency), a UK government support agency. Initially established for Information Systems, and Information Technology projects to decrease overruns related to cost and time. 

  • 1997: Critical Chain Project Management (CCPM) Designed

CCPM was designed and introduced by Eliyahu M. Goldratt in 1997. The management of resources, keeping them in the proper level. This method is learning, keeping the resources flexible in start times and swapping among tasks when necessary to keep the project on a stable schedule. The method seems critical. However, it promotes the chain level project management system (Fleming & Koppelman, 2016, December).

  • 1998: PMBOK Becomes a Standard

PMBOK was announced as standard for project management by The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) in 1997 and then afterwards it was recognized by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). 

  • 2001: The Agile Manifesto Written

Philosophy for Agile Software Development has known to be issued by developers of 17 software about the lightweight software development methods in their meet at The Lodge, Snowbird, Utah resort in Feb’2001. 

  • 2006: “Total Cost Management Framework” Release by AACE International

AACE introduced the idea for the entire cost management and issued the complete staging of the procedure in “Complete Cost management arrangement”. It has been introduced as a first integrated process, a method for application of the abilities and knowledge of cost engineering. Cost management is a significant slide in the project management system.

  • 2008: 4th Edition of PMBOK Guide Released

The fourth updated version of PMBOK guide released with the PMI custom of superiority in project management with a standard that is more improved than earlier and convenient to comprehend and use with efficient reliability and enhanced organization (Ahola, et. al., 2014).

  • 2009: Major PRINCE2 Revision by Office of Government Commerce (OGC)

A prime amendment in PRINCE2 made the approach easier to customize as per the user requirement. The updated version is classified into 7 principles, supports the success of the project.  

  • 2012: ISO 21500:2012 Standard for Project Management Released

After making research and investigation by analysts in more than fifty economies, book of the global entity for Standardization published “ISO 21500:2012, Guidance on Project Management” in September 2012. 

  • 2012: 5th Edition of PMBOK Guide Released

The next fifth edition of the book provides the enhanced version with strategies, regulations, and features for project management considered as noble practice or case studies in the profession of project management.

Importance of project management in modern world organizations

Project management is playing an important and crucial part for every size of organization for the management of day to day operations without any mess. It is now necessary for a company to hire a dedicated project manager to organize projects from beginning to achievement.  Appropriate project management techniques are helpful for any organization to work on big projects, dealing budget and earning tag, reputation, success, and money (Ahola, et. al., 2014).

Few points are mentioned as below for the better understanding of the benefits using the Project management in the organization:

  1. Estimation: Project management promotes the core interest in any project with the estimate of the task involved like, time duration estimate, cost estimate, people required for the project estimate, a tool essential, and method or technology to be considered for the project.
  2. Planning:  The Planning project is the heart of project management life rotation. The project plans are documented & the schedule is mentioned, which will result in delivering the preferred results. 
  3. Exclusive Endeavour: The project management assists the organization to the successful achievement of the task for the unique product or service. The exclusiveness is never a temporary phase for the product managers, it is under the core job preferences. 
  4. Timeline Review: forming a project, will never be without a specific timeline. The project management methods are used for the calculation of the timeline of the project. 
  5. Budgeting: The project budget has significant importance in the project management of the task as any project can’t be even in the execution phase with the cost estimation or a budget approved (Joslin & Müller, 2015).
  6. Changes & Excellence: Both terms are significant for any organization as project management plays a key role to accomplish the changes as per the demand and skill developed manger acquired the methods to control the quality at the same time, to endure the happy customers. 
  7. Opportunity: The wider projects may involve more planning, careful coordination, huge finances, long term project duration but it will ensure the futuristic and the extended tenure for the company’s success pathway. 


Project management is a practice or skill that can be developed for the achievement of any task with proper planning, time duration calculation, budget estimation, upcoming changes, maintaining the quality with the opportunity and challenges. This required the optimum utilization of resources and applying inputs for the anticipated and unique outcome. Good project management guarantees that the goals of projects lined up suitably with the planned goals of the organization. The basis on the referral history of project management growth and enactment of methods in several years, project management is the core and essential part of any organization, group, or anyone performing task whether it’s a small or huge project. These methods show the clear path for the planning, execution and conclusion with the mandate consequences. The history of the project management exhibit the ideas, concepts and the skills ascended by researchers and learners for the improved accomplishment of the project management profession. 

  • Seymour, Tom & Hussein, Sara Minot State University, USA, The History of Project Management, 2014
  • Berkun Scott, O’Reilly Media, Inc. (Mar 2008) Making things happen Chapter 1. A brief history of project management (and why you should care)
  • Panou, George (Mar 2018 ) History and Processes of Project Management
  • A Brief History of Project Management
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