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To identify role of Cyber security in banking sector.

Research objective

Research on informational technology plays an important role in security of banks and their sector. It is involving bank accounts to balance in account, secure by informational technology. There is huge number of coding program, password security and softwares applications for computational work security. There is usage of customer for mobile banking, internet banking, booking, digital wallet and ATM. 

Research questions

To identified IT role in organisational innovation and success

To determine Research philosophies for IT projects and bank approaches

To study about IT sector contribute to bank security 

Literature review

IT role in bank organisation on high level to low level like organisation designs, dashboards setup, digital profiles, planning, schemes, advertisement and company messages on customer mobile and emails of services. All services are in digital mode and technological mode for customer facilities. Bank services are used technology in confidential details in secure folders with history charts. Customer details, accounts, money reports, online transaction by mobile applications, internet banking, and software transaction and bank applications are in secure code system. It is not easy to break and assessable for anyone (Martins, et. al.,2014). 

In informational technology and organisational approaches together for customers for fast working is found in digital world. Large number of customers are used mobile banking and banks are used to secure folder and code for application security and customers details. Customer details are insecure with account details with not use by others (Bamrara, et. al., 2013).

Fast and easy to work style by using informational technology by customers are used frequently. It is also facilities and cyber crime increase in world of money transaction. Transaction details are captured by applications, softwares online that are blink on screen of laptop and work as transfer the data base of account. It is dangerous in case of login is not going to logout. There is system for login in bank account in online or software application that can be stopped in three minutes (Biener, et. al.,2015).

Login details are saved in password and account access are not for anyone in bank manager authorities. There are security types of question, finger prints, biometrics, face expressions and password in strong characters (Baikalov, et. al., 2016).

Informational technology has projects with online applications of shopping and banks tie up. Banking sector tie ups specific online shopping market are now in trends, which encourages customers to gain more benefits. Some banks offer cash backs and reward for shopping with their bank cards. Banking tie ups with Digital wallets are also trending. These all tie ups either bank to Digital wallet, Bank to Online market, Bank to Government online service apps like Railway e-tickets have encouraged customers to purchase online safer and economical (He, et. al., 2015). So customers are now relying on online market for shopping, services and many more online marketing. Faith in online marketing is developed in such a way that sometimes customer didn’t read the policies of digital market apps and they faithfully purchase items while using their bank cards.

It sectors in bank security as information alerts on mobile number. There are mobile number details in account of customer in bank but not on display. It is also IT application and reason for security. Pin code for ATM and money transactions are not fully displayed on blank place. ATM pin generates in register mobile and validated only for three minutes are security steps. Cameras and biometrics in bank for security reasons are found in banks (Keisidou, et. al.,2013). Management authority and administrations have security cameras monitors in office. Cyber security is found in networking of computers and internet access in all computers is linked by one. Because it is security check of any type of mislead in bank offices. Biometric and password system for unlock locker rooms.

Account accessible by customer or concern bank branches is also security of digital. All banks have security in account codes and reference numbers that can be detected customer identifications and their account detail with all data bases. Mobile numbers are registered with account details and it can be easily hacks of account if they are displayed. / By the cyber security it is not on fully displayed on account details and account number also in coding. There is branch code, bank code and last digits are account numbers that are in or the alphabetic form to hidden numbers (Karimi,,2015). 

Research methodology

Research methodology adopted step wise process –

Research data collection 

There are two sources for data collection one is primary and other is secondary.

Primary source of data– Banks and their cyber security reviews by customers and bank staff.

Secondary source of data– Banks and cyber security data and relation cases are available on internet and literatures.

Data interpretation– data is manipulated according to research need. The data is analysis and categorised for important study. It is outcome to importance of cyber security and customer relief for money in bank and technology uses. Type of cyber securities are safe banks and their networks with customers. There is instruction also on display that not share any password and card for anyone. There are no responsibilities of bank. There are also facilities of ATM card and pin is missed by customer that can be blocked account by bank in digital way. It is not in money transaction services and customer money will be safe (Karimi,,2015).

Data Analysis – Data is collected and divided in classes and folders. It is used group wise analysis of role of technology in banking security. Technology is helpful in security. It is also analysed cyber security is personal security for bank users (Keisidou, et. al.,2013).


Most of technology is used in bank work like facilities to customer for quick access, technology in mobile for bank transactions, ATM facilities and online transaction by application softwares. There is all work fast by technology called as informational technology. It is generated crime also in money transfer like password stolen and money transfer so data base of bank information come secure (He, et. al., 2015). It is termed as cyber security. It is most commonly used in Bank for digital work of transaction of money by shopping applications, softwares of bank for mobile banking, sms alert and internet banking. It is very vast topic to study because technology not only in progress for banks transactions but also progressive in cyber crime. It is break the security of accounts and money transfers in very small amount and not in noticeable form. It is included in cyber crime (Baikalov, et. al., 2016). It is popular in bank sector due to money directly involved. Many information technology company are work of create security for bank softwares and their management of networking access.

In case of fraud calls for ask pin number of ATM and account details of mobile numbers etc are track by cyber security. It can be in mentioned spam and fraud calls. It is help of customers to prevent thief in bank sectors. 

Ethical view

This Topic is choose randomly it is not concern from any organisation, information technology innovations, and softwares in particular way and not related to any bank case. It is simple and analysis research report for study purposes.


Significance of IT in bank sectors is in fast technology, bank account accessibility, mobile banking, check account transactions and statement in online copy etc. The bank is secure in network by password, security by cameras and records of customers in computational records (Biener, et. al.,2015).


Cyber security is beneficial as well as harmful in bank sectors like software crack by hackers, accounts security code crack and security passwords lick b customers in bank (Martins, et. al.,2014).


  • Martins, C., Oliveira, T. and Popovič, A., 2014. Understanding the Internet banking adoption: A unified theory of acceptance and use of technology and perceived risk application. International Journal of Information Management, 34(1), pp.1-13.
  • Bamrara, D., Singh, G., & Bhatt, M. (2013). Cyber Attacks and Defense Strategies in India: An Empirical Assessment of Banking Sector. Gajendra and Bhatt, Mamta, Cyber Attacks and Defense Strategies in India: An Empirical Assessment of Banking Sector (January 1, 2013).
  • Biener, C., Eling, M., & Wirfs, J. H. (2015). Insurability of cyber risk: An empirical analysis. The Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance-Issues and Practice, 40(1), 131-158.
  • Baikalov, I. A., Froelich, C., McConnell, T., & McGloughlin, J. P. (2016). U.S. Patent No. 9,516,041. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
  • He, W., Tian, X., & Shen, J. (2015, April). Examining Security Risks of Mobile Banking Applications through Blog Mining. In MAICS (pp. 103-108).
  • Keisidou, E., Sarigiannidis, L., Maditinos, D. I., & Thalassinos, E. I. (2013). Customer satisfaction, loyalty and financial performance: A holistic approach of the Greek banking sector. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 31(4), 259-288.
  • Karimi, S., Papamichail, K. N., & Holland, C. P. (2015). The effect of prior knowledge and decision-making style on the online purchase decision-making process: A typology of consumer shopping behaviour. Decision Support Systems, 77, 137-147.

Task 1 – Truth tables and logic circuit diagrams

Task 1A 

0 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 1
0 1 0 0 0
0 1 1 0 1
1 0 0 0 0
1 0 1 0 1
1 1 0 1 1
1 1 1 1 1

0 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 1 1
0 1 0 1 1
0 1 1 0 0
1 0 0 0 1
1 0 1 1 0
1 1 0 1 0
1 1 1 0 1

Task 1B

Task 1C

Do I see a clown Am I at circus Run away
0 0 0
0 1 0
1 0 1
1 1 0

Hungry Lunchtime Have food Should I eat
0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 1 0 0
0 1 1 0
1 0 0 0
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 1 1 1

Main switch Lamp 1 Lamp 2 A.B A.C
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0
0 1 0 0 0
0 1 1 0 0
1 0 0 0 0
1 0 1 0 1
1 1 0 1 0
1 1 1 1 1

Task 2 – Binary and representing integers

Task 2A

  • 2 bits

1 bit = 2 values

2 bits = 4 values

  • 1 byte

1 byte = 8 bits


= 256 values

  • 6 byte

6 byte = 48 bits

= 248

= 2.81 X 10 14

  • 128 bits = 2128

= 43.40 X 1038

Task 2B

  • 3
  • 7
  • 8
  • 12
  • 77

Task 2C

28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20
256 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
  • 10

= 1 X 21 + 0 X 20

= 2 + 0

= 2

  • 111

= 1 X 21 + 1 X 21 + 1 X 20

= 4 + 2+ 1

= 7

  • 1101

= 1 X 23 + 1 X 22 + 0 X 21+ 0 X 21+ 1 X 20

= 16 + 0 + 4 + 2 + 0

= 22

  • 10110

= 1 X 24 + 0 X 23 + 1 X 22 + 1 X 21+ 0 X 20

= 16 + 0 + 4 + 2 + 0

= 22

  • 100110

= 1 X 25 + 0 X 24 + 0 X 23 + 1 X 22 + 1 X 21+ 0 X 20

= 32 + 0 + 0 + 4 + 2 + 0

= 38

  • 1000100

= 1 X 26 + 0 X 25 + 0 X 24 + 0 X 23 + 1 X 22 + 0 X 21+ 0 X 20

= 64 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 4

= 68

Task 3 – Excel as a logic calculator

Task 3A


(Refer – logic_diagrams.xlsx)

Task 3 B


(Refer – logic_diagrams.xlsx)

Task 4 – Full Adder

Task 4 A

0 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 1 0
0 1 0 1 0
0 1 1 0 1
1 0 0 1 0
1 0 1 0 1
1 1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1 1

Task 4B

A1 B1 S1 C1
0 0 0 0
0 1 1 0
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 1
A2 B2 C1 S2 C2
0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 1 0
1 0 0 1 0
1 1 1 1 1


  • Aberg, R. O., Raghavan, V., & Ren, Y. (2014). U.S. Patent No. 8,798,971. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
  • Gale, E., de Lacy Costello, B., & Adamatzky, A. (2013, July). Boolean logic gates from a single memristor via low-level sequential logic. In International Conference on Unconventional Computing and Natural Computation (pp. 79-89). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
  • Smessaert, H., & Demey, L. (2016, August). Visualising the Boolean Algebra $$\mathbb {B} _ {4} $$ in 3D. In International Conference on Theory and Application of Diagrams (pp. 289-292). Springer, Cham. 
  • Whitesitt, J. E. (2012). Boolean algebra and its applications. Courier Corporation.
  • Wilkins, C. (2012). Digital electronics and laboratory computer experiments. Springer Science & Business Media.

Post 2

ACS Code of ethics is the element of ACS constitution. As the member of this constitution I must advance and uphold the effectiveness, dignity and honour of being professional. As a good citizen I must adhere the following society values –

  • Honesty
  • Competence
  • Professionalism
  • Primacy of public interest
  • Professional development
  • Increment in quality life (ACS, 2020).

These are the components of ACS code of ethics. Now, to solve the ethical dilemma that we discussed above such as deontology, utilitarianism, social contract theory and character based ethical theory, I would suggest the IT professionals, surgeons and patients also to do act in accordance with the ACS codes of ethics. To become a good citizen of Australia every individual must adhere the principles or components discussed above. 

In honesty, the surgeon and IT professionals should be honest in terms of representing their knowledge, skills, products and services (ACS, 2020). 

With this ACs value, the surgeon and IT professionals would be able to distinguish between their personal opinions and professional opinions. 

In Competence, the surgeon and IT professional must apply their work diligently and competently for their stakeholders (patients).

With this ACS value, the surgeon and IT professionals will accept their responsibility regarding their professional activity. This will not permit both of them to misrepresent their knowledge and skills (Users, 2020). 

In professionalism, as a professional surgeon and IT professional they must increase the integrity and they should respect their patients.

This ACS value will help in continuous upgrade of knowledge and skills of surgeon and IT professional. This will also tell both that whether their work is affecting their profession and their relationships with others (Teaching, 2020). 

In Primacy of public interest, in this component of ACS code of ethics all the professionals must place public’s interest over their own personal, sectional and business interests. 

This value helps in identifying those individuals who are impacted by the work of surgeon and IT professional. This will help in identifying any type of conflict within the profession and the professional activity. 

In Professional development, the surgeons and professionals have to increase their own professional development and of their staff and colleagues as well.

This ACS value will help surgeon and IT professionals to take a calm, informed, knowledgeable and objective stand on their professional work. This will also help in endeavour o expand knowledge of public and their understanding on ICT.

In Increment in quality life, the surgeon and the IT professionals are responsible for struggling for the quality life which does not affect the others by your work (ACS, 2020). 

With this ACS value the surgeon and It professionals would be able to promote and protect the health and safety of those individuals who are affected by your professional activity. This will be helpful in getting personal satisfaction, control over those affected and competence.

When it comes to become a good citizen every person must adhere these principles of ACS code of ethics. This leads to peace, and good application of the knowledge and learning.

In situation of such dilemma between different values, Primacy of public interest obtains preference over other values. These ACS codes of conduct basically aim at someone as a practitioner individually and these codes of conduct will then be guidelines for the acceptable professional conduct. These guidelines will be applicable to the members of the ACS who are the surgeon and IT professional given in the case study. These codes of conduct will be helpful in dealing with such kind of dilemmas.  The ACS values discussed above will be helpful in resolving the dilemmas (Teaching, 2020).


  • ACS, (2020). About ACS CODE OF ETHICS. Available at – [Accessed on – 19 April 2020]. 
  • Wood-Black, F., & REM, M. (2016, August). What’s in a Code of Conduct?. In ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY (Vol. 252). 1155 16TH ST, NW, WASHINGTON, DC 20036 USA: AMER CHEMICAL SOC.
  • Teaching, (2020). About Australian Computer Society Code of Ethics. Teaching. Available at – [Accessed on – 20 April 2020]. 
  • Users, (2020). About Australian Computer Society CODE OF ETHICS. Users. Available at [Accessed on – 20 April 2020].

Requirements analysis and design

Use cases of the takeaway system with requirements

Use case name: See the menu, place the order and initiate the payment



Other managers and cooks


Many display system

Order management system

Payment gateway and billing system


The owner wants to explain and display all the contents of the menu, and the special packages. The customers should be able to select the packages, see the costs, and should be able to pay the cost of the selected dishes.


The users and customers have selected the food items and also purchased using the payment gateway.


  • The system can be used to place the order.
  • Users can know about their selected and ordered packages.
  • An estimation of the time to complete the order is also can be displayed.

Normal Flow

  • Ana will open the system.
  • She will be able to see the available food dishes, special packages and other offers with their prices.
  • She will select the dishes, and confirm their order.
  • Ana will be able to see the details of the payment amounts that were received from Pizzas and Pasta.
  • Ana will be able to see the details of the amount of the Pizzas and Pasta that were sold at that session.

UML diagrams

A use case diagram for processing and order

Development of the code

Functionality to process the ordering

Following points are described as the functionality of processing the orders:

Database Stock

It is a monthly update regarding the stock position. It will help Ana to know about the amount of the raw material as well as the prepared food that can be added in the packages too. This function will make the program efficient as it is one of the basic necessity to develop the program.

Sell-in Plan

It is an operation target that is used to aim the S&OP divisions which are related to the volume and amount of the order. This will be required to know the ordering quantity and manage the amount of food.

Recommendation of the PO

It is a document that contains the recommendation regarding the stock that is to be build up to manage the sell history and amounts of the sold food items. It has the introduction of the products and service of the system and business, the recommended sr=trategy to distribute and manage the order processing technique, the sales history. It is beneficial for the sales and operations department to get an idea about the targets and goals.

Confirmation of PO

The PO confirmation is an ordering document, which is also used for the communication between the distributor, sales department, and operation department. The number of orders and the amount of the product that is ordered are accessed and managed by this function.

The sales order

The sales order is the result of the confirmation process of the PO. The compliance checking process and process mapping are the features it can provide.

The delivery process of the orders

This is again the most important function that Ana needs in the system.twill teel her about the final payment details and the quantity of the product that is ordered by the customer and based on this information, Ana will proceed to add the packages for the customers. 

The script is as following:;







public class PizzaCentre {

public static void main(String[] args) {

System.out.println(“Welcome to Pizza Centre..”);

Scanner sc = new Scanner(;

inttotalPizzaInSession = 0;

inttotalPastaInSession = 0;

inttotalIncomeInSession = 0;

while(true) {

System.out.println(“Please select from the following options:”);

System.out.println(“1. Select Item”);

System.out.println(“2. Exit”);

String option = sc.nextLine();

if(!option.matches(“1|2”)) {

System.out.println(“You have selected incorrect option!!”);



if(option.equals(“1”)) {

inttotalPizza = 0;

inttotalPasta = 0;

inttotalPizzaPrice = 0;

inttotalPastaPrice = 0;

Map<String, FoodItem>foodItems = new HashMap<>();

booleanisPizzaAdded = false;

booleanisPastaAdded = false;

FoodItem pizza = null;

FoodItem pasta = null;

while(true) {

System.out.println(“Please select from the following items:”);

System.out.println(“1. Pizza”);

System.out.println(“2. Pasta”);

option = sc.nextLine();

if(!option.matches(“1|2”)) {

System.out.println(“You have selected incorrect option!!”);



System.out.println(“Enter the quantity of the item”);

int quantity = Integer.parseInt(sc.nextLine());

if(option.equals(“1”)) {

if(!isPizzaAdded) {

pizza = new Pizza();


totalPizzaInSession += quantity;

totalPizza += quantity;

isPizzaAdded = true;


foodItems.put(“pizza”, pizza);

}else if(option.equals(“2”)){

if(!isPastaAdded) {

pasta = new Pasta();


totalPastaInSession += quantity;

totalPasta += quantity;

isPastaAdded = true;


foodItems.put(“pasta”, pasta);


System.out.println(“Do you want to add more items? Y/N”);

option = sc.nextLine(); 

if(option.equalsIgnoreCase(“y”)) {


}else {

List<SideItem>sideItemList = null;

for(Entry<String, FoodItem> entry : foodItems.entrySet()) {


if(entry.getKey().equals(“pizza”)) {

totalPizzaPrice = entry.getValue().getTotalPrice();

}else if(entry.getKey().equals(“pasta”)) {

totalPastaPrice = entry.getValue().getTotalPrice();



isPizzaAdded = false;

isPastaAdded = false;

sideItemList = FoodItem.checkForAdditionalOffers(foodItems);

String sideItemsString = “”;

if(sideItemList!=null && !sideItemList.isEmpty()) {

Optional<String>itemString = ->x.getQuantity() + “-” + x.getName()).reduce((x,y) -> x+”,”+y);

sideItemsString = itemString.get();


totalIncomeInSession += totalPastaPrice + totalPizzaPrice;

System.out.println(“Your Order details are as follows: “);

System.out.println(“Total no. of Pizzas: ” + totalPizza);

System.out.println(“Total no. of Pastas: ” + totalPasta);

System.out.println(“Total sideItems: ” + sideItemsString);

System.out.println(“Total payment amount of pizza in the current order: ” + totalPizzaPrice);

System.out.println(“Total payment amount of pasta in the current order: ” + totalPastaPrice);

System.out.println(“Total pizzas ordered in this session: ” + totalPizzaInSession);

System.out.println(“Total pastas ordered in this session: ” + totalPastaInSession);

System.out.println(“Total income in this session: ” + totalIncomeInSession);




}else {

System.out.println(“Thanks for using this application..”);







public class Pizza implements FoodItem{


privateint quantity;


public void calculatePrice() {

switch(quantity) {

case 1:

totalPrice = 12;


case 2:

totalPrice = 22;



totalPrice = quantity*10;




publicintgetTotalPrice() {



publicintgetQuantity() {

return quantity;


public void setQuantity(int quantity) {

this.quantity = quantity;



public class Pasta implements FoodItem{


privateint quantity;


public void calculatePrice() {

switch(quantity) {

case 1:

totalPrice = 8;


case 2:

totalPrice = 15;



totalPrice = quantity*7;




publicintgetTotalPrice() {



publicintgetQuantity() {

return quantity;


public void setQuantity(int quantity) {

this.quantity = quantity;




GARLIC_BREAD(“Garlic Bread”,0,0), 

SOFT_DRINK(“Soft Drink”,0,0),


private String name;

privateint quantity;

privateint price;

SideItem(String name, int quantity, int price){ = name;

this.quantity = quantity;

this.price = price;


public String getName() {

return name;


public void setName(String name) { = name;


publicintgetQuantity() {

return quantity;


public void setQuantity(int quantity) {

this.quantity = quantity;


publicintgetPrice() {

return price;


public void setPrice(int price) {

this.price = price;







public interface FoodItem {

public void calculatePrice();

public static List<SideItem>checkForAdditionalOffers(Map<String, FoodItem>foodItems) {

intpizzaQuantity = 0;

intpastaQuantity = 0;

List<SideItem>sideItemList = new ArrayList<>(); 

for(Entry<String, FoodItem> entry : foodItems.entrySet()) {

if(entry.getKey().equals(“pizza”)) {

pizzaQuantity = entry.getValue().getQuantity();

}if(entry.getKey().equals(“pasta”)) {

pastaQuantity = entry.getValue().getQuantity();



if(pizzaQuantity>=3 || pastaQuantity>=3) {

int a = pizzaQuantity/3;

int b = pastaQuantity/3;

if(a>0) {

SideItemsideItem = SideItem.GARLIC_BREAD;




if(b>0) {

SideItemsideItem = SideItem.SOFT_DRINK;




int c = a < b? a: b;

if(pizzaQuantity>=3 &&pastaQuantity>=3) {

c = c==0? ++c : c;

SideItemsideItem = SideItem.BAKLAVA;








public void setQuantity(int quantity);



Pizza Corner


import java.util.ArrayList;

import java.util.List;

import java.util.Scanner;







public class PizzaCorner {

public static int sessionPizza = 0;

public static int sessionPasta = 0;

public static int sessionBilliAmount=0;

public static void main(String[] args) {

System.out.println(“Welcome to Pizza Kitchen!!!”);

System.out.println(“Please place your order here…”);

System.out.println(“***Today’s Special Offer, for every 3 Pizzas AND 3 Pasta Baklava (a famous dessert) is free***”);

Scanner sc = new Scanner(;

boolean icorrectInput=false;

BillingDO billingDO = new BillingDO();

Payments pizzaPayments = new PizzaPaymentsImpl();

Payments pastaPayments = new PastaPaymentsImpl();

while(true) {


if(!sc.hasNext(“[0-9]+”)) {

icorrectInput = true;

        System.out.println(“Not a valid input!Please try again.”);



int selection = sc.nextInt();

if(selection==1) {

System.out.println(“We are offering following packages for Pizza \n”+

“1 Large Pizza : 12 AUD \n”+

“2 Large Pizzas : 22 AUD \n”+

“3 or more Pizzas 10 AUD per unit compliemntary garlic bread \nfor every three pizzas”);

System.out.println(“Provide the number of Pizza to be ordered..”);

int noOfPizza = sc.nextInt();

billingDO = pizzaPayments.payment(noOfPizza,billingDO);

System.out.println(“Do you want to add anything?”);

}else if(selection==2) {

System.out.println(“We are offering following packages for Pasta \n”+

“1 Large Pasta : 8 AUD \n”+

“2 Large Pasta : 15 AUD \n”+

“3 or more Pastas 7 AUD per unit compliemntary Soft Drink(1.25 Liter) \nfor every three pastas”);

System.out.println(“Provide the number of Pasta to be ordered..”);

int noOfPasta = sc.nextInt();

billingDO = pastaPayments.payment(noOfPasta,billingDO);

System.out.println(“Do you want to add more items in your order?”);

}else if(selection==3) {

System.out.println(“Thanks for shopping with us..Enjoy your meal!!”);



int totalAmount =billingDO.getPizzaPrice()+billingDO.getPastaPrice();

sessionPizza = sessionPizza+billingDO.getQuantPizza();

sessionPasta = sessionPasta+billingDO.getQuantPasta();

sessionBilliAmount = sessionBilliAmount+totalAmount;

System.out.println(“Total Payment for Pasta Order: “+billingDO.getPastaPrice()+” AUD”);

System.out.println(“Total Payment for Pizza Order: “+billingDO.getPizzaPrice()+” AUD”);

System.out.println(“Total Bill: “+totalAmount+” AUD”);

System.out.println(“Total items: “);

System.out.println(billingDO.getQuantPizza()+” Pizza(s) “+billingDO.getQuantPasta()+” Pasta(s).”);

if(!billingDO.getComplimentary().isEmpty()) {

System.out.println(“Enjoy your complimentary items: “);

billingDO.getComplimentary().forEach((n) -> System.out.println(n));


System.out.println(“Session Pizza Order: “+sessionPizza);

System.out.println(“Session Pasta Order: “+sessionPasta);

System.out.println(“Session Total Amount: “+sessionBilliAmount+” AUD”);

billingDO = new BillingDO();




else if(selection==4) {

System.out.println(“Session Pizza Order: “+sessionPizza);

System.out.println(“Session Pasta Order: “+sessionPasta);

System.out.println(“Session Total Amount: “+sessionBilliAmount+” AUD”);

System.out.println(“Thanks for visiting Pizza Kitchen!!”);


}else {

System.out.println(“Provided input is incorrect.Please provide a valid value from below choices.”);






public static void menu() {

System.out.println(“1. Pizza”);

System.out.println(“2. Pasta”);

System.out.println(“3. Generate Bill & Continue with App”);

System.out.println(“4. Exit”);


public static BillingDO checkComplimentary(BillingDO billingDO) {

List<String> compItems = new ArrayList<>();

ComplimentaryPizza complimentary = new ComplimentaryPizza();

ComplimentaryPasta complimentaryPasta = new ComplimentaryPasta();



if(billingDO.getQuantPasta()>=3 && billingDO.getQuantPizza()>=3) {




return billingDO;



Functionality to process the orders of various amount

Billing Do


import java.util.List;

public class BillingDO {

private int pizzaPrice;

private int quantPizza;

private int quantPasta;

private int pastaPrice;

private List<String> complimentary;

public int getPizzaPrice() {

return pizzaPrice;


public void setPizzaPrice(int pizzaPrice) {

this.pizzaPrice = pizzaPrice;


public int getPastaPrice() {

return pastaPrice;


public void setPastaPrice(int pastaPrice) {

this.pastaPrice = pastaPrice;


public int getQuantPizza() {

return quantPizza;


public void setQuantPizza(int quantPizza) {

this.quantPizza = quantPizza;


public int getQuantPasta() {

return quantPasta;


public void setQuantPasta(int quantPasta) {

this.quantPasta = quantPasta;


public List<String> getComplimentary() {

return complimentary;


public void setComplimentary(List<String> complimentary) {

this.complimentary = complimentary;



Additional Package 1


import java.util.ArrayList;

import java.util.List;


public class Complimentary {

public String complimentaryPizzaPasta(BillingDO billingDO) {

List<String> comp =new ArrayList<>();

comp.add(“Baklava (Dessert)”);

String complimentary=””;

int noOfBaklava =0;

int pasta =0;

int pizza =0;

if(billingDO.getQuantPasta()>=3) {

pasta = billingDO.getQuantPasta() / 3;


if(billingDO.getQuantPizza()>=3) {

pizza = billingDO.getQuantPizza() / 3;


if(pizza>=1 && pasta>=1) {

if(pizza>pasta) {

noOfBaklava = pasta;

}else if(pasta>pizza) {

noOfBaklava = pizza;

}else if(pasta==pizza) {

noOfBaklava = pasta;


complimentary = noOfBaklava+” “+comp.get(0);


return complimentary;



Additional Package 2


import java.util.ArrayList;

import java.util.List;


public class ComplimentaryPasta extends Complimentary{

public String complimentaryPasta(BillingDO billingDO) {

List<String> compPizza =new ArrayList<>();

compPizza.add(“Soft Drink(s) – 1.25 Liter”);

String complimentary=””;

int drinks = 0;

if(billingDO.getQuantPasta()>=3) {

drinks = billingDO.getQuantPasta() / 3;


complimentary = drinks+” “+compPizza.get(0);

return complimentary;



Additional Package 3


import java.util.ArrayList;

import java.util.List;


public class ComplimentaryPizza extends Complimentary{

public String complimentaryPizza(BillingDO billingDO) {

List<String> compPizza =new ArrayList<>();

compPizza.add(“Garlic Bread(s)”);

int garlicBreads = 0;

String complimentary;

if(billingDO.getQuantPizza()>=3) {

garlicBreads = billingDO.getQuantPizza() / 3;


complimentary = garlicBreads+” “+compPizza.get(0);

return complimentary;






public interface Payments {

BillingDO payment(int quantity, BillingDO billingDO);


A progressive payments menu option that displays the total income received

from both the items (pizza & pasta) individually and the total income from all


Payments for Pizza



public class PizzaPaymentsImpl implements Payments{


public BillingDO payment(int quantity, BillingDO billingDO) {

int quant = billingDO.getQuantPizza()+quantity;

int price=0;

if(billingDO.getQuantPizza()==0) {


}else {



if(quant==1) {

price = 12;

}else if(quant==2) {

price = 22;

}else if(quant>=3) {

price = quant*10;



return billingDO;



Payments for Pasta



public class PastaPaymentsImpl implements Payments{


public BillingDO payment(int quantity, BillingDO billingDO) {

int quant = billingDO.getQuantPasta()+quantity;

int price=0;

if(billingDO.getQuantPasta()==0) {


}else {



if(quant==1) {

price = 8;

}else if(quant==2) {

price = 15;

}else if(quant>=3) {

price = quant*7;



return billingDO;




<?xml version=”1.0″ encoding=”UTF-8″?>

















Class Path

<?xml version=”1.0″ encoding=”UTF-8″?>


<classpathentry kind=”con” path=”org.eclipse.jdt.launching.JRE_CONTAINER/org.eclipse.jdt.internal.debug.ui.launcher.StandardVMType/JavaSE-1.8″/>

<classpathentry kind=”src” path=”src”/>

<classpathentry kind=”output” path=”bin”/>


Settings pre requirement













Code demonstrating the use of an interface and polymorphism to handle the item

fires and the various item options available

Billing of orders

Billing in the Same session

Invalid input from the choice 

Invalid input from the choice 

Reflection on learning

The information that is required to complete this assessment and the tasks are collected and the concepts are developed and learned on a practical basis. The man interesting learning that I gained from completing this assignment is that the basic concepts are used in the practical approach and to solve a problem similar to the real-life issue. The interesting details and the techniques to identify the use cases before implementing and preparing the programming for developing an application or such system as it is described in the assignment. The requirements that play a major role to define and identify the use cases are studied and the other details and important features are also reviewed. The main purpose of the UML diagrams is to understand. After knowing the main function of the UML diagrams, the detailed diagrams are prepared that represent the Use cases, classes, and sequence of the processes and operation that complete the customers’ orders. The code is developed and the programming is done as per the requirements of the system that Ana wants to implement. The object-oriented programming language JAVA is used for the development of the code and the systems to display the men and the ament details. Thus this assessment helped to understand the theoretical concepts like polymorphism and uses of classes in the practical learning exercise.


  • Chavan, V., Jadhav, P., Korade, S., & Teli, P. (2015). Implementing customizable online food ordering system using web based application. International Journal of Innovative Science, Engineering & Technology2(4), 722-727.
  • Susanto, T., Djamaris, A. R., & Azkia, N. (2016). Process Analysis on Order Processing Function to Reduce Order Processing Time: Indonesian Context. International Journal of Research in Management & Technology (IJRMT), 76-89.
  • Tanpure, S. S., Shidankar, P. R., & Joshi, M. M. (2013). Automated food ordering system with real-time customer feedback. International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering3(2).

Create a new database.

— phpMyAdmin SQL Dump

— version 5.0.2


— Host:

— Generation Time: Apr 23, 2020 at 06:55 PM

— Server version: 10.4.11-MariaDB

— PHP Version: 7.4.4



SET time_zone = “+00:00”;




/*!40101 SET NAMES utf8mb4 */;

— Database: `myuniversity`

CREATE DATABASE IF NOT EXISTS `myuniversity` DEFAULT CHARACTER SET utf8mb4 COLLATE utf8mb4_general_ci;

USE `myuniversity`;

Create the tables

— Indexes for dumped tables

— Indexes for table `class`



  ADD KEY `FK2` (`LectureID`),

  ADD KEY `FK1` (`CourseID`),

  ADD KEY `FK3` (`RoomID`);

— Indexes for table `course`

ALTER TABLE `course`


— Indexes for table `lecturer`

ALTER TABLE `lecturer`

  ADD PRIMARY KEY (`LecturerID`),

  ADD UNIQUE KEY `LecturerID` (`LecturerID`);

— Indexes for table `room`



  ADD UNIQUE KEY `RoomID` (`RoomID`);

— AUTO_INCREMENT for dumped tables

— AUTO_INCREMENT for table `class`



— Constraints for dumped tables

— Constraints for table `class`



  ADD CONSTRAINT `FK2` FOREIGN KEY (`LectureID`) REFERENCES `lecturer` (`LecturerID`),


— Metadata

USE `phpmyadmin`;

— Metadata for table class

— Metadata for table course

— Metadata for table lecturer

— Metadata for table room

— Metadata for database myuniversity

— Dumping data for table `pma__pdf_pages`

INSERT INTO `pma__pdf_pages` (`db_name`, `page_descr`) VALUES

(‘myuniversity’, ‘schema’);


— Dumping data for table `pma__table_coords`

INSERT INTO `pma__table_coords` (`db_name`, `table_name`, `pdf_page_number`, `x`, `y`) VALUES

(‘myuniversity’, ‘class’, @LAST_PAGE, 402, 143),

(‘myuniversity’, ‘course’, @LAST_PAGE, 638, 31),

(‘myuniversity’, ‘lecturer’, @LAST_PAGE, 640, 137),

(‘myuniversity’, ‘room’, @LAST_PAGE, 651, 231);

— Dumping data for table `pma__pdf_pages`

INSERT INTO `pma__pdf_pages` (`db_name`, `page_descr`) VALUES

(‘myuniversity’, ‘schema2’);


— Dumping data for table `pma__table_coords`

INSERT INTO `pma__table_coords` (`db_name`, `table_name`, `pdf_page_number`, `x`, `y`) VALUES

(‘myuniversity’, ‘class’, @LAST_PAGE, 402, 143),

(‘myuniversity’, ‘course’, @LAST_PAGE, 638, 31),

(‘myuniversity’, ‘lecturer’, @LAST_PAGE, 640, 137),

(‘myuniversity’, ‘room’, @LAST_PAGE, 651, 231);

Create the relationships between the tables

— ——————————————————–

— Table structure for table `class`


CREATE TABLE `class` (

  `classID` int(11) NOT NULL,

  `CourseID` varchar(8) NOT NULL,

  `LectureID` int(11) NOT NULL,

  `RoomID` varchar(4) NOT NULL,

  `Day` char(4) NOT NULL,

  `Time` time(3) NOT NULL,

  `Length` int(11) NOT NULL



—   `CourseID`

—       `course` -> `CourseID`

—   `LectureID`

—       `lecturer` -> `LecturerID`

—   `RoomID`

—       `room` -> `RoomID`

— Dumping data for table `class`

INSERT INTO `class` (`classID`, `CourseID`, `LectureID`, `RoomID`, `Day`, `Time`, `Length`) VALUES

(2483, ‘ENG402’, 1234, ‘A24’, ‘mond’, ’11:00:18.000′, 9),

(7128, ‘MAT401’, 7890, ‘B26’, ‘tues’, ’15:00:18.000′, 7);

Viewing the relationships between tables: WampServer also provides a way to view the relationships between the tables.

— ——————————————————–

— Table structure for table `course`


CREATE TABLE `course` (

  `CourseID` varchar(9) NOT NULL,

  `CourseName` text NOT NULL,

  `Description` text NOT NULL,

  `CreditPoints` int(11) NOT NULL



— Dumping data for table `course`

INSERT INTO `course` (`CourseID`, `CourseName`, `Description`, `CreditPoints`) VALUES

(‘ENG402’, ‘ENGLISH’, ‘English Literature class.’, 10),

(‘MAT401’, ‘MATHS’, ‘Mathematical class’, 10);

Inserting data into a table

— ——————————————————–

— Table structure for table `lecturer`


CREATE TABLE `lecturer` (

  `LecturerID` int(11) NOT NULL,

  `LecturerFirstname` text NOT NULL,

  `LecturerSurname` text NOT NULL



— Dumping data for table `lecturer`

INSERT INTO `lecturer` (`LecturerID`, `LecturerFirstname`, `LecturerSurname`) VALUES

(1234, ‘Evan’, ‘Woods’),

(7890, ‘Olivia’, ‘Patrick’);

— ——————————————————–

— Table structure for table `room`



  `RoomID` varchar(4) NOT NULL,

  `RoomType` text NOT NULL,

  `Building` varchar(4) NOT NULL



— Dumping data for table `room`

INSERT INTO `room` (`RoomID`, `RoomType`, `Building`) VALUES

(‘A24’, ‘Single’, ‘ABC’),

(‘B26’, ‘Double’, ‘xyz’);


  • Dev.mysql, 2020. About Creating and Selecting a Database. Dev.mysql. Available at – [Accessed on – 25 April 2020].
  •, 2020. About A Basic MySQL Tutorial. Available at – [Accessed on – 25 April 2020].
  • Docs.kony, 2020. About Database Setup Guide-MySQL. Docs.kony. Available at – [Accessed on – 25 April 2020].
  •, 2020. About MySQL Database Installation and Configuration for Advanced Management Console.  Available at – [Accessed on – 25 April 2020].
  • Downloads.mysql, 2020. About MySQL Tutorial. Downloads.mysql. Available at – [Accessed on – 25 April 2020].

Introduction and description of project background

A business case refers to the first expected outcome in the life cycle of IT projects. It provides an assessment of the feasibility, value, benefits, risks and costs of various suggested options or alternatives to an organization (Panwar et al., 2017). The report shall present a business case based on Port Fairy Caravan and Camping Park. The company, which is based in Port Fairy, offers customers a wide range of options for accommodation such as non-motorized and motorized camping sites, recently renovated cabins consisting of a toilet, lounge, and kitchenette and shower room. The project undertaken by South West Advertising Inc. aims to analyze as well as evaluate the company’s e-marketing strategies by reviewing all e-marketing channels such as online newsletters, advertising on Google and social media, posts on community website and community notice boards.  

Description of project objectives (including link to organisational mission statement)

The purpose of the project based on Port Fairy Caravan and Camping Park is to analyse the e-marketing strategy of the company. The evaluation must also provide details of a review and investigation into all e-marketing channels used by the company at present such as online newsletters, social media advertising, mobile app, and other platforms (Chaffey & Ellis-Chadwick, 2019). Furthermore, the project shall also provide a list of changes that are to be made in the bookings, ROI and comparison with key competitors, for each of the e-marketing channel used by Port Fairy Caravan Park. The director of Port Fairy, Jerry Maguire has realized that the digital marketing strategy of the company is extremely costly and therefore wants to review it for determining the most cost-friendly yet impactful approach to promote the park’s facilities on various online advertising platforms. This is even more urgent for the company since its mission is to be the leading camping and holiday spot for tourists at an affordable price range for packages (, 2020). 

Description of the current situation (including a SWOT analysis)

A SWOT analysis of the present situation at Port Fairy with regard to its e-marketing strategy review project has been presented. 


  • The project is expected to derive the most impactful and economical approach to the digital marketing strategy implemented by Port Fairy Caravan Park 
  • The project is expected to make a minimum of 25% ROI.

  • Due to the difference in educational background, ideals, and skills of people on sports-related projects and those who work on new caravanning and camping projects, the project is on a weak ground. 
  • This difference has led to many employees not in full agreement with South West’s new strategies of concentrating on increasing profits by entering new markets.

  • The project can review already-available information, carry out research and collect new material about the markets that are to be tapped in order to help employees gain insights about the new changes in the strategy.
  • For ensuring the success of the tender bid, the project manager can evaluate the digital marketing strategy, review the current digital presence of Port Fairy and other such details in order to come up with the most economical and cost-effective e-marketing strategy for the company (Wirtz & Zeithaml, 2018)  

    • The shift to focus more on increasing profits by tapping into new markets can be quite challenging for South West, which predominantly focuses on the evaluation and development of e-marketing strategies for sporting companies (Hollensen, 2019).
  • Threats can arise not only from key stakeholders such as employees but also from the suppliers due to the abrupt change in the company’s strategies. 

Table 1: SWOT analysis of the current situation

Outline of problem/opportunity statement

The project aims to come up with the most cost-effective strategy for digital marketing for the company, Port Fairy that shall help the company’s director, Jerry Maguire to invest more on improving and optimising the facilities provided by the parks. The biggest expected opportunity of the project is that it shall lead to a minimum of 25% ROI. However, the company that has been chosen by him for this purpose, South West primarily focuses on evaluating digital marketing strategies for sports enterprises. The CEO of the firm wants to change the currently followed strategy by tapping into other markets such as reviewing digital marketing strategy of a caravanning company, Port Fairy. This move is expected to create numerous problems for the company due to the vast difference in the education and skills of the employees working on sporting companies and camping marketing projects. 

Details of critical assumptions and constraints

With this project, it is assumed that the current costs and expenses involved in the online marketing strategy of Port Fairy would be minimised and the most impactful approach to market the services and facilities of the parks would be formulated. Furthermore, it is also assumed that the project shall earn a minimum of 25% ROI. Moreover, since the project evaluation will require data to support the findings and discussion made while reviewing the existing digital marketing strategies of the firm, it is assumed that this data and information would be gained through conducting surveys of the vacationers and reviewing and evaluating the financial records and bookings (Das et al., 2019). 

However, the challenges are in the form of resistance from employees of South West Advertising who may not agree with the CEO, Bob Sugar’s interest in increasing the profits of the company by tapping into new markets, such as caravanning and camping marketing projects. Furthermore, the stark differences in the skill sets of the employees working on evaluating sporting firms’ e-marketing strategies and those of camping ones shall also constitute major constraints

An analysis of options and recommendations

In order to overcome the potential challenges discussed above, South West Advertising would be required to gain significant knowledge and information about the current e-marketing channels used by Port Fairy. This is to be followed by convincing the employees who are unwilling to welcome the change in strategy to look at the finer sides of the new strategy in terms of the profits that shall be earned if the projects are successful (Noe & Kodwani, 2018). Lastly, training programs and workshops can be organised in order to train the employees to develop the basic skills that are required by them for evaluating camping e-marketing channels and strategies. 

financial analysis (npv, roi and payback figures)


Discount rate 9.00%          
Assume the project is completed in Year 0     Year      
  0 1 2 3 Total  
Costs 90,000 20,000 20,000 15,000    
Discount factor 1.00 0.92 0.84 0.77    
Discounted costs                     90,000            18,400          16,800            11,550  1,36,750   
Benefits 0 90,000 1,30,000 1,50,000    
Discount factor 1.00 0.92 0.84 0.77    
Discounted benefits 0           82,800        1,09,200        1,15,500  3,07,500   
Discounted benefits – costs                   (90,000)           64,400          92,400        1,03,950 
Cumulative benefits – costs                   (90,000)
        66,800        1,70,750     
  Payback in Year 1      

Table 1: NPV


        Present value
Year Cost Benefit Net cash flow at DF 80% at DF 90%
0 -90000 0 -90000 -90000 -90000
1 -20000 90000 70000 38888.5 36842.4
2 -20000 130000 110000 33950.4 30471.1
3 -15000 150000 135000 23148.45 19681.65
      Total 5987.35 -3004.85

Table 2: IRR

IRR = 80+(90-80)*5987.35/{5987.35-(-3004.85)}

        = 86.66%

Payback Period

Year Costs Benefits Cum Costs Cum Benefits
0 90,000 0 90,000 0
1 20,000 90,000 1,10,000 90,000
2 20,000 1,30,000 1,30,000 2,20,000
3 15,000 1,50,000 1,45,000 3,70,000

Table 3: Payback period

Figure 1: Payback period

From the above calculation it can be seen that NPV of project in three months is going to be $170,750. IRR of the project is expected to be 86.66%. Payback period is going to 1 year. All these results are showing positive outcomes of new project. These tools are used to identify potential risks and profitability of project before making investment. 

NPV shows the current value of money after a specific time. NPV is reflecting that value of project after 3 months would be $170,750. It means value is going to increase from $144,540 to $170,750. IRR shows the earnings from an investment on periodic basis. Rate of return is 86.66% it means project would earn $ 86.66 on spending each $100. Payback period shows the duration in which cost of an investment project would be recovered. Company can invest in new project as it would be profitable for company in future. 

Preliminary project requirements (project preliminary scope)

Project Justification Project is created to analyse Port fairy Carvan and Camping park pty Ltd e marketing strategy. It will also include the evaluation of all e marketing channels.
Product Description It would include evaluation of e marketing strategy, examination of current target market through survey and research. Information would be gathered from customers, market and employees about the new strategy.
Project deliverables a) Digital marketing strategy evaluation b) Research about customer profile C) analysis of digital channel d) evaluation of messaging strategy e) review of marketing ROI and recommendation for new e marketing strategy.
Project objective Objective is to evaluate e commerce strategy for Port fairy Carvan and identify ROI, NPV and PP. Motive is to complete project on time within budget.
Out of scope items Internal information of company such as traditional marketing and finances are out of scope items. All employees cannot be surveyed.
Cost objective Total estimated cost for project has been kept 

 $145,000. Therefore, activities would be allocated as per the budgeted amount.

Schedule objective Three months or 12 weeks have been considered for the completion of project.
Acceptance criteria Acceptance criteria reflects that timely completion and within budget. Payment rate would be $80 p/hr for project team and consultant pay is negotiable.
Constraints Disagreement among several employees with company’s new strategy. Consultant pay rates are also negotiable and it can be constraint.
Assumptions Initial investment in project is assumed to be 

 $90,000 and ROI is assumed to be 125%.

Table 4: preliminary project requirements

Budget estimate (cost model and baseline)

  # Units/Hrs. Cost/Unit/Hr. Subtotals WBS Level 1 Totals % of Total
WBS Items          
1. Project Management       $21,100  15%
  1.1 Project manager 100 $50  $5,000     
  1.2 Project team members 100 $80  $8,000     
  Contractors (10% of software development and testing)     $8,100     
2. Hardware       $9,000  6%
    2.1  Handheld devices 60 $100  $6,000     
    2.2  Servers 3 $1,000  $3,000     
3. Software       $73,750  51%
    3.1 Licensed software 25 $150  $3,750     
    3.2 Software development*     $70,000     
4. Testing (10% of total hardware and software costs)     $11,000  $11,000  8%
5. Training and Support       $16,550  11%
    5.1 Trainee cost 60 $120  $7,200     
    5.2 Travel cost 9 $150  $1,350     
    5.3 Project team members 100 $80  $8,000     
6. Reserves (10% of total estimate)     $13,140  $13,140  9%
          Total project cost estimate       $1,44,540   

Table 5: Budget

Budget of 145,000 has been decided for the project therefore all the necessary costs are allocated as per the current rates and resource requirement in budget. 10% of total estimate has would be kept as contingency reserve. Project management, hardware, software and training costs are included in budget. Major part of budget is going to be spent on hardware as it is crucial part of project.

Schedule estimate (including work breakdown structure level 3)

Scheduled estimates of all project activities have been shown in the image. Each activity has been allocated with estimated time for accomplishment. This organisation would help in managing work as schedule and priority. E marketing evaluation strategy is prime activity and other activities are supporting activities. These support activities would take place one after another.

List of potential risks

Potential risks are mentioned below:

  • Resistance from employees to adapt with new policy. Lack of employee support can lead to failure of project.
  • Changing market environment can affect the strategies and evaluation.
  • Incorrect assumptions can affect the effectiveness of project.
  • Increasing cost of resources can increase the budgeted cost for project.
  • It is a time consuming process therefore it can take more than three months to complete the project.
  • Conflicts regarding pay rates can be arise.


Thus it can be concluded that e commerce strategies in business help in reaching large number of customers in low cost. However these e commerce projects require time and cost. It can be seen from the case study that a project for evaluation of e marketing strategy has been proposed. There are various functions involved with project as budget, risks, financial analysis and recommendations. Return from investment in new project is expected to profitable and all the activities are allocated as per budget and time. There are risks of conflicts and disagreement during the project. It is also seen that activities are divided in work breakdown structure level three.


Chaffey, D., & Ellis-Chadwick, F. (2019). Digital marketing. Pearson UK.

Das, H. R., Rao, P. S., Kamath, G. B., & Prasad, H. S. (2019). Influence of E-Marketing Strategy on Customer Satisfaction. International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering, 8(9 Special Issue 3), 289-292.

Hollensen, S. (2019). Marketing management: A relationship approach. Pearson Education.

Noe, R. A., & Kodwani, A. D. (2018). Employee Training and Development, 7e. McGraw-Hill Education.

Panwar, R., Nybakk, E., Hansen, E., & Pinkse, J. (2017). Does the business case matter? The effect of a perceived business case on small firms’ social engagement. Journal of Business Ethics144(3), 597-608. (2020). Port Fairy Caravan Parks | Quality Holiday Accommodation & Camping. Retrieved 4 May 2020, from

Wirtz, J., & Zeithaml, V. (2018). Cost-effective service excellence. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 46(1), 59-80.


Project management is the presentation of information, services, measures, and approaches applied to project actions so that the organization can fulfill essentials of the project. The history of the project management studies incorporates detailed growth in profession year by year. Project management methods are being used for decades while the documentation and the standardization took place later on for the customized projects. The history of project management methods’ has substantial value for choosing the right method on the right project.



To understand the project management, “Project” needs to be clarified for better clearance on the project management.

A project can be short-term work started to create and develop a unique product, service, or outcome. Every project defines the work has a beginning and the end both. The beginning is where the idea is been generated and the end would be the result, is the objective of the idea is achieved and the existence of the project with the accomplishment or termination.

Project Management

Project management is the keyword implemented for the knowledge of implementation way for the success of any teamwork. Few studies says that this word “Project Management” is being used since the 19th century (Chofreh, et. al., 2016). Project management is an idea used by engineers and architects for long, it may be before civilization. Nowadays, Project management is an essential chunk of any organization to walk on the success path. It has immense specifications and details for the operation and fruitful achievement.

The old pyramids, The Great Wall of China, and Coliseum are the true models of project management. These unique structures are not been in existence without the people or team in charge of managing them. A study for the completion of vast projects showcases that the work had been assigned to different assemblies with different sorts to accomplish the task and achieve desired results. However, the outcome was not that strong in the imagination. 


There is no perfect or solid evidence or documentation for the start of the project management. After researches and studies, the history of the Project management starts as follows:

  • 2570 BC: The Great Pyramid of Giza’s structure

Emperors structured the pyramids and in present scenario the architects, studying and researching how they have managed to start the amazing monument, executed the idea and then attained the end of the project. This shows the project management skills in an earlier era (Chofreh, et. al., 2016).

  • 208 BC: The Great Wall of China’s creation

Alternative wonder of the world, the planning, and execution of the project were organized by king by diving the team into three groups and thousands of people were ordered to help the construction team to comprehensive this huge project. 

  • 1917: The Gantt chart Established by Henry Gantt (1861-1919)

Founder and inventor of The Gantt chart, Henry Gantt created the scheduling diagrams on his name. The innovative idea is still considered as a vital part of the toolkit of project managers’

  • 1956: The American Association of Cost Engineers (now AACE International) Formed

AACE was founded by experts of earlier times, project management and connected domains of designing and scheduling, estimation of cost, cost, and schedule control (Too & Weaver, 2014).

  • 1957: The Critical Path Method (CPM) Developed by the Dupont Corporation

CPM formed by Dupont for the management of huge power plant maintenance. An approach to analyze timeframe of any project that is scheduling the task on plants along with the shutting downtime of plants while the project running.

  • 1958: The Program Evaluation Review Technique (PERT) Developed for the U.S. Navy’s Polaris Project

PERT was designed special projects office which was element of department of defence of US Navy. It was known to be element of the Polaris mobile submarine-propelled ballistic missile project in times of the cold war (Silvius & Schipper, 2014). 

  • 1962: United States Department of Defence Mandate the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Approach

WBS created by the division of Defence as part of the Polaris mobile submarine-propelled ballistic missile project. It is an extensive, graded hierarchy organization of deliverables and work that must be executed to undertake a project

1965: The International Project Management Association (IPMA) Founded

First of the project management organisation is known to be IPMA. It was formed as a meeting for the link of project manager’s and sharing data (Pinto, 2014). Organisation is known to be federation of overall fifty domestic and globally based project management organisations and also it is authorised in Switzerland. 

1969: Project Management Institute (PMI) Launched to Promote the Project Management Profession

PMI was known to be originated by five individuals as a non-for-profit entity and is dedicated to spread the practice, science, and project management as a profession. An article created by The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania for Merger for PMI in 1969, which was the authorised initiation. 

1975: PROMPTII Method Created by Simpact Systems Limited

Structure of PROMPTII was basically for the computer projects as the projects were delayed over time investigated for execution and real budgets as mentioned in practicability studies (Silvius & Schipper, 2014).

  • 1975: The Mythical Man-Month: Essays on Software Engineering by Fred Brooks

The book “software engineering and project management” by Fred Brooks, showcases fact “Addition of manpower to a late software project designs it afterwards.” This ideology is called law of Brooks’s. 

1984: Theory of Constraints (TOC) Presented by Dr. Eliyahu M. Goldratt in his Novel “The Goal”

A clear sign on the title, TOC is a management viewpoint that supports any organization to successfully achieve the goals (Pinto, 2014). The TOC procedure searches to identify the limitation or obstacles in the projects and streamline the remaining of the organization’s tasks with application of Five Focusing Steps

1986 Scrum Named as a Project Management Style

Scrum is known to be an agile software development technique oriented on numerous small groups functioning in an exhaustive and mutually dependent form. ‘The New Product Development Game’ (Harvard Business Review, 1986) Takeuchi and Nonaka gave name as Scrum as a project management technique in their paper. 

1987: A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) Published by PMI

PMBOK is a guide for the standard tools and proper documentation of information and facts of project management practices. This guide is an essential tool in the project management profession since then it has become the globally used standard in the industry (Fleming & Koppelman, 2016, December). 

1989: Earned Value Management (EVM) Leadership Elevated to Undersecretary of Defense for Acquisition

EVM framework was used in factory management systems since the early 19th century. EVM leadership was raised to the Undersecretary of Defense for Acquisition, thereby making EVM an primary aspect of programme management. 

1989: PRINCE Method Developed From PROMPTII

PRINCE method was issued by the UK Government agency CCTA, PRojects IN Controlled Environments (PRINCE). It is known to be popular as the benchmark for all government system projects, a unique real approach, basically the ideology of ‘assuring development’ from three identical but connected views. Studies say, the measure is ungainly, too stiff, and applies only for the large projects. 

  • 1994: CHAOS Report First Published

The Standish Group formed for the collection of the information and details on any of the project failures in the IT industry (Panou, Mar 2018). The CHAOS report is the regular issue regarding IT project failure, this leads learning from the failure of others and discovering more methods to enhance on accomplishment rate and raising the worth of IT investments. 

  • 1996: PRINCE2 Published by CCTA

A second edition on PRINCE method, more standardized and applicable to any project announced by the primary computer and Telecommunications Agency), a UK government support agency. Initially established for Information Systems, and Information Technology projects to decrease overruns related to cost and time. 

  • 1997: Critical Chain Project Management (CCPM) Designed

CCPM was designed and introduced by Eliyahu M. Goldratt in 1997. The management of resources, keeping them in the proper level. This method is learning, keeping the resources flexible in start times and swapping among tasks when necessary to keep the project on a stable schedule. The method seems critical. However, it promotes the chain level project management system (Fleming & Koppelman, 2016, December).

  • 1998: PMBOK Becomes a Standard

PMBOK was announced as standard for project management by The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) in 1997 and then afterwards it was recognized by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). 

  • 2001: The Agile Manifesto Written

Philosophy for Agile Software Development has known to be issued by developers of 17 software about the lightweight software development methods in their meet at The Lodge, Snowbird, Utah resort in Feb’2001. 

  • 2006: “Total Cost Management Framework” Release by AACE International

AACE introduced the idea for the entire cost management and issued the complete staging of the procedure in “Complete Cost management arrangement”. It has been introduced as a first integrated process, a method for application of the abilities and knowledge of cost engineering. Cost management is a significant slide in the project management system.

  • 2008: 4th Edition of PMBOK Guide Released

The fourth updated version of PMBOK guide released with the PMI custom of superiority in project management with a standard that is more improved than earlier and convenient to comprehend and use with efficient reliability and enhanced organization (Ahola, et. al., 2014).

  • 2009: Major PRINCE2 Revision by Office of Government Commerce (OGC)

A prime amendment in PRINCE2 made the approach easier to customize as per the user requirement. The updated version is classified into 7 principles, supports the success of the project.  

  • 2012: ISO 21500:2012 Standard for Project Management Released

After making research and investigation by analysts in more than fifty economies, book of the global entity for Standardization published “ISO 21500:2012, Guidance on Project Management” in September 2012. 

  • 2012: 5th Edition of PMBOK Guide Released

The next fifth edition of the book provides the enhanced version with strategies, regulations, and features for project management considered as noble practice or case studies in the profession of project management.

Importance of project management in modern world organizations

Project management is playing an important and crucial part for every size of organization for the management of day to day operations without any mess. It is now necessary for a company to hire a dedicated project manager to organize projects from beginning to achievement.  Appropriate project management techniques are helpful for any organization to work on big projects, dealing budget and earning tag, reputation, success, and money (Ahola, et. al., 2014).

Few points are mentioned as below for the better understanding of the benefits using the Project management in the organization:

  1. Estimation: Project management promotes the core interest in any project with the estimate of the task involved like, time duration estimate, cost estimate, people required for the project estimate, a tool essential, and method or technology to be considered for the project.
  2. Planning:  The Planning project is the heart of project management life rotation. The project plans are documented & the schedule is mentioned, which will result in delivering the preferred results. 
  3. Exclusive Endeavour: The project management assists the organization to the successful achievement of the task for the unique product or service. The exclusiveness is never a temporary phase for the product managers, it is under the core job preferences. 
  4. Timeline Review: forming a project, will never be without a specific timeline. The project management methods are used for the calculation of the timeline of the project. 
  5. Budgeting: The project budget has significant importance in the project management of the task as any project can’t be even in the execution phase with the cost estimation or a budget approved (Joslin & Müller, 2015).
  6. Changes & Excellence: Both terms are significant for any organization as project management plays a key role to accomplish the changes as per the demand and skill developed manger acquired the methods to control the quality at the same time, to endure the happy customers. 
  7. Opportunity: The wider projects may involve more planning, careful coordination, huge finances, long term project duration but it will ensure the futuristic and the extended tenure for the company’s success pathway. 


Project management is a practice or skill that can be developed for the achievement of any task with proper planning, time duration calculation, budget estimation, upcoming changes, maintaining the quality with the opportunity and challenges. This required the optimum utilization of resources and applying inputs for the anticipated and unique outcome. Good project management guarantees that the goals of projects lined up suitably with the planned goals of the organization. The basis on the referral history of project management growth and enactment of methods in several years, project management is the core and essential part of any organization, group, or anyone performing task whether it’s a small or huge project. These methods show the clear path for the planning, execution and conclusion with the mandate consequences. The history of the project management exhibit the ideas, concepts and the skills ascended by researchers and learners for the improved accomplishment of the project management profession. 

  • Seymour, Tom & Hussein, Sara Minot State University, USA, The History of Project Management, 2014
  • Berkun Scott, O’Reilly Media, Inc. (Mar 2008) Making things happen Chapter 1. A brief history of project management (and why you should care)
  • Panou, George (Mar 2018 ) History and Processes of Project Management
  • A Brief History of Project Management
  • Silvius, A. J., & Schipper, R. P. (2014). Sustainability in project management: A literature review and impact analysis. Social Business4(1), 63-96. Available at:
  • Too, E. G., & Weaver, P. (2014). The management of project management: A conceptual framework for project governance. International Journal of Project Management32(8), 1382-1394. Available at:
  • Pinto, J. K. (2014). Project management, governance, and the normalization of deviance. International Journal of Project Management32(3), 376-387. Available at:
  • Fleming, Q. W., & Koppelman, J. M. (2016, December). Earned value project management. Project Management Institute. Available at:
  • Ahola, T., Ruuska, I., Artto, K., & Kujala, J. (2014). What is project governance and what are its origins?. International Journal of Project Management32(8), 1321-1332. Available at:
  • Chofreh, A. G., Goni, F. A., Ismail, S., Shaharoun, A. M., Klemeš, J. J., & Zeinalnezhad, M. (2016). A master plan for the implementation of sustainable enterprise resource planning systems (part I): concept and methodology. Journal of Cleaner Production136, 176-182. Available at:
  • Zou, W., Kumaraswamy, M., Chung, J., & Wong, J. (2014). Identifying the critical success factors for relationship management in PPP projects. International Journal of Project Management, 32(2), 265-274. Available at:
  • Alias, Z., Zawawi, E. M. A., Yusof, K., & Aris, N. M. (2014). Determining critical success factors of project management practice: A conceptual framework. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 153, 61-69. Available at:
  • Joslin, R., & Müller, R. (2015). Relationships between a project management methodology and project success in different project governance contexts. International journal of project management, 33(6), 1377-1392. Available at:

Selected Job Profile 

Cybersecurity analyst

Role: The role of the cybersecurity specialists is to maintain the security of the computer information systems majorly against cybercrimes that involve denial of service attacks, phishing sites, viruses, hacking, and malware. The roles and responsibilities of the cybersecurity analyst includes a number of activities to take care of, some of them are mentioned below:

  • Generating reports for technical as well as non-technical shareholders.
  • To track and respond to “pharming” activity and ‘phishing’ emails and websites.
  • To keep updated with the latest technology and security developments.
  • Research about emerging risks about cybersecurity and methods to handle those threats.
  • Monitor attacks, unusual activities, intrusions and unauthorized or illegal activities.
  • Give guidelines and advice to the staff on issues such as unwanted or malicious and spam mails.
  • Make plans for disaster recovery while security breaches.
  • Help with the maintenance, creation, as well as delivery of awareness trainings about cyber security to the colleagues.
  • Evaluate and test for the security products.
  • Upgrade existing security systems by designing the new security systems.
  • Engaged in Ethical Hacking for simulating security breaches.
  • Investigating security alerts and provide response.
  • Identifying potential weakness in the system and implement measures accordingly such as firewalls and encryptions.
  • Monitoring identity and access management.


It is not necessary to have a degree to enter this profession of cyber security analyst. You just have to be skilled enough to work up to cyber security role.

Majority of the employer recruit for a position of a graduate, they prefer or require, a graduate degree in science or technology or may be in Engineering (Narayanan, et al., 2017).

Exact requirements may vary from employer to employer. More relevant degree subjects include:

  • Computer science
  • Information security
  • Network Engineering
  • Information security
  • Network security
  • Information technology
  • Software Engineering

Your degree will not value any longer as once you start gaining experience, and the employers will be interested in what projects you’ve worked upon, not in your qualification. You may choose relevant subject area to undertake further studies.

Some employers can sponsor you to undergo relevant master’s degree. You can also choose a certification related to cyber security to get a proof of a knowledge you’ve gained.

Career Prospects

Cybersecurity is one of the rapidly developing field and currently there is a skill shortage. Job scope is good for the skilled and experienced people. One will start with an entry or junior level cyber security job. After gaining the experience of several years you could get progress into senior cyber security roles like cyber security analyst/ cyber security consultant (Palmer, et. al., 2019).

After having a significant expertise in the same field, one might be able to get progress in high level leadership roles as well as managerial roles, and eventually ending up with becoming a head or director of cyber-security. Achieving certifications relevant to the cyber security might be help in your development as most employer consider these roles as important. 

Self-employment can be considered as a choice, but mostly people firstly gain expertise in the relevant field. one could set a company which will provide cyber security services or can individually work as independent cyber security consultant.

Application letter

Dear Mr. XYZ

PQR security Consulting

Sub: Job Application


I am looking for a job in field of cyber security analyst in a reputed company and I would like to work in your company. I think I have all necessary skills along with experience required by your company and would be glad to make valuable contribution in success of your company. As indicated by my resume I have more than 5 years of experience in field of cyber security. I have worked as team leader in national division of cyber security for more than 3 years and has done many projects as an analyst of cyber security. I have earned my degree of bachelor in field of computer science with very strong mathematical background. Previously I was working in division of national cyber security for so many years I have learned many things there and gained experience in many fields such as how we can secure any computer system like large server, and mainframe, from external as well as internal attacks. This is an obvious thing that analyst of cyber security needs continuous education about field with time because there are a lot of hackers can be seen in world and they keep finding new methods of infiltration of computer systems. An analyst of cyber security must stay ahead of them from one step so that they can’t infiltrate computer systems easily.

My main strengths lie in effectively leading a team and problem solving and I accepts challenges created by hacker to get into my computer system very gladly and I always stay ahead of them. I have strong communication skills required for leading a team and along with that my English is good so that I will not find any troubles in making necessary reports and documents. I have sharp analytical skills and can solve very complex problems easily. I have very good time management skills and able to meet deadlines for assigned projects. I can assist staff in errors understanding and glitches repairing. I have excellent knowledge about use of computer programs aiming in direction of digital security. I will love opportunity of working in your company as analyst of cyber security.

I am very certain that your company will find all of my talents and expertise up to the mark for an analyst of cyber security. Please schedule an interview according to your convenience I am expecting a person to person or a telephonic interview to be scheduled as soon as possible. I am excited to meeting you and to work in your company and I also thank you for your valuable time and for your considerations.



Major criteria of selection

Key criteria of selection in any company as an analyst of cyber security some major points must be kept in mind and there are some basic as well as advanced requirements like licensing requirements, experience, education requirements etc. for working as analyst of cyber security in any company. All these requirements are mentioned below with full description:

  • Person’s bachelor’s degree must be in field of computer science or in field of information system or there can be equivalent work experience or education (Washington, 2017).
  • Experience should be more than 4 years. In field of cyber security with good mathematical background.
  • Person must have done advanced certification courses such as GCIA, SANS GIAC, GCIH, CASP or CISSP and special training of SIEM along with certification.
  • Certification of Hold DoD 8570 IAT of 2nd level (CE + Security) at date of starting.
  • An analyst must have advanced understanding in fields of TCP/IP, Basic networking 
  • Protocols and ports, flow of traffic, administration system, OSI model, in depth defence and elements of common security. 
  • High level of experience in analysing high-volume logs, network’s data and many other artifacts of attack in incident investigation’s support.
  • Experience in scanning solutions of vulnerability. 
  • Familiarity in program of vulnerability program of DOD information’s assurance.
  • Good knowledge of any of following: HIPS, anti-virus, complete packet capture, ID/PS, forensics which are host based, forensics of network, and security of RSA.
  • Complete and in-depth architecture knowledge, knowledge of engineering, and all operations of minimum 1 enterprise ‘s SIEM platform (for e.g. Nitro or McAfee manager of enterprise security, Radar, Log Logic, ArcSight, Splunk.
  • Experience in deploying along with developing signature. (e.g. Snort, YARA, HIPS, Suricata).
  • Complete understanding of Operating system (i.e. IOS, Android, Windows) and mobile technology along with VMware technology, and basic Unix commands with Unix. 

Skills required for cyber security   

  • System administration: An analyst of cyber security must posses’ skills of managing so many systems such as software, hardware, workstations, effectively and efficiently.
  • Network security: an analyst of cyber security must have ability to protect underlying infrastructure of networking from misuse, malfunction or unauthorized access. So that a secure and safe platform can be created for all computer systems (Piplai, et al., 2019).
  • Problem solving: cyber security officer must posse’s skill of problem solving as hackers always try to infiltrate systems with new techniques and an analyst must have solutions of these problems.
  • Policies of information security: these are some rules that formed by a particular organization to ensure all networks and users of IT structure within company can stay secured.
  • Firewall administration: firewall can be defined as a device for network security which control network traffic and decide which traffic to be allowed or which is to be rejected on based of defined rules for network security.
  • Network protocols: network protocols can be defined as policies or standards made by rules, formats, procedures, that define communication in between devices over any network.
  • Routers, switches, hubs: Hubs can be defined as dumb devices that have ability to pass one to other connections. Switches can be defined as semi intelligent device that knows which device has which connection, routers are very intelligent and can perform many tasks.
  • Process improvement: it can be defined as a task of identifying, analysing and after that improving business processes which were not that good previously. This must be done for optimization of organization and to reach to new quality standards. 

Curriculum Vitae


Cyber Security Analyst

Phone: (0123) 456­789 | | Website:  


Verified Cyber Security Analyst having more than 6 years of expertise in system security, intelligence, security operations and cyber-crimes investigator. Skilled in risk assessment and handling, Risk Management Framework (RMF), vulnerabilities handling, Assessment as well as Authorization. Can efficiently interact with a number of different individuals, agencies, interests and constituencies. 


Network Administration of TCP/IP, Penetration Testing, Anti­virus, Anti­malware, Vulnerability Scanning, Network Security, Framework Assessment, Snort and Nessus Risk Management, POAM Management, Authorization and Authentication, NIST, CSAM, FISMA, Firewall, FIPS Security Control Assessment and prevention Protocols/ Intrusion Detection, Mainframe, Windows, Linux and Unix Operating Systems, Packet Analysis Tools and Network Protocols.


Cyber Security Analyst

Lookout ­ June 2013 – Present

Key Deliverables:

  • Interviewing system admins and other shareholders in support of the AA process to assist in generating personalized reports and/or artefacts.
  • Identifying security checks and building a compliance matrix for monitoring.
  • Apply adequate Federal Information System Cyber Management Regulation focused on NIST 800-37, analyse risks and weaknesses based on realistic studies.
  • Supports us by protective cyberspace operations (DCO) with cyber guidance and central command (Centcom).
  • Performing as the Cyber Protection Team Reduction Squad (CPT) information-security analyst within the network security divisions.
  • Protects essential assets and main services inside the global knowledge system agency for security.
  • Providing protection assistance to FISMA and Nist process information system security officers (Isso), and touch level.
  • Implement security assessment as well as authorization environments like network protection categorization, safety and contingency plan creation, security testing & review, device accreditation, and ongoing tracking.

System Support Engineer

Crowdstrike ­ January 2012 – May 2013

Key Deliverables:

  • Undertakes all-source information review of the strengths and risks of adversarial cyberspace by investigation and study.
  • Researching, preparing, deploying, configuring, troubleshooting, updating and improving operating systems.
  • Diagnose the problem and fix issues with equipment, applications, and networking including device control and synchronization of devices.
  • Computer equipment and peripherals mounted, programmed, and modified to also include the network card, scanners, modems, and add-in panels.
  • Imaged machines and network administration tools utilized for ticketing services support desk.
  • Addressed remedial steps to prevent intrusion identification and destruction of viruses, and malware.
  • Helping consumers define the problems through the use of the information base.
  • Provide technical assistance of the information network to a broad variety of clients in industrial national security settings.
  • Provide technical assistance to a broad variety of users in the industrial information security field via the computer network.
  • Use predictive technology to track network irregularities and harmful communication.
  • Use predictive technology to track network irregularities and harmful communication.
  • Help for the deployment and troubleshooting of desktop and portable devices on Linux, macs, android, Windows computers, and iOS handheld apps; problem / incident reporting, and problem / scaling.
  • Using advanced analytics discover anomalies in networks and malicious traffic.


 Master of Science ­ May 2016(Malborne University, School of Graduate & 

Professional Studies , MD)


Narayanan, S. N., Ganesan, A., Joshi, K., Oates, T., Joshi, A., & Finin, T. (2018, October). Early detection of cybersecurity threats using collaborative cognition. In 2018 IEEE 4th international conference on collaboration and internet computing (CIC) (pp. 354-363). IEEE.

Piplai, A., Mittal, S., Joshi, A., Finin, T., Holt, J., & Zak, R. (2019). Creating cybersecurity knowledge graphs from malware after action reports.

Palmer, C., Angelelli, L. A., Linton, J., Singh, H., & Muresan, M. (2016, September). Cognitive Cyber Security Assistants—Computationally Deriving Cyber Intelligence and Course of Actions. In 2016 AAAI Fall Symposium Series.

Washington, T. (2017). Critical Skill Job–Cyber Security Analyst. Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States).

Individual Analytic Report

Executive Summary

Data is an essential asset which helps in creating the competitive advantages over organization. Data Analytics helps organization develops operational efficiency, drive new income, & increase competitive advantage. In this report, how data analytics provides business to users or organizations has been discussed by choosing the SPSS tool. SPSS is termed as Statistical package for the Social Sciences which are use to solve difficult statistical data analysis. SPSS issued by market researchers, health researchers, marketing organizations, & many more for analysing the data. In this report two types of data analytics can be discussed i.e., predictive & prescriptive, Why SPSS tool in data analytics will be chosen & why it is used & the improvements to the data analytics to user or organization by using SPSS tool has been further discussed in assignment. For improving the business growth of any organization, it needs to collect related information. 

Research Question

How can data analytics provide (business) value to users &/or organisations? 


The report includes the details about the data analytics done in the business. The report includes the detail about the importance of the data analytics to the users & the organisation. The software used in this report for the data analytics is the SPSS solutions. The SPSS solutions are the software package that is used for the interactive statistical analysis that is done in the business or organisation. The current name of the SPSS tool is the IBM SPSS Statics. This tool is used by the large number of the organisation for the statistical analysis in social science. The SPSS statistics focuses on simplifying the programming by including the internal file structure, data processing, data type etc. this tools used by the various researchers in making the statistical analysis of the data. The programs offered by the SPSS tool are statistics programme, modeller programme, visualisation designer & text analytics for survey programs.

Importance of data analytics

Data analytics is important to the business & the users. Data analytics is needed in the business to consumer applications (Devi et. al., 2013). The organisation collects the data from the consumers & then this data is gathered & categorised after this the analysis is done.  The data analytics will help the business to grow. Therefore, it can be said that there is certain factor that can define the importance of data analytics in the business such as:

Analysis of business value chain

The data analytics helps the business to analyse the ways in which the existing information can be used to help the business in finding the way to the success.

Industry knowledge

The data analytics helps the business to gain the knowledge about the industry. In this the business can get the knowledge about the ways they can adopt to succeed in future (Chen et. al., 2012). It also helps to analyse the economy that is avail bale with the business.

Seeing the opportunities

The data analytics helps the business in analysing the data that can help in creating the opportunities for the business. It is said to be the way of unlocking the various options for the business.

It benefits the users as they can get the collected data in the systematic form that can help them in making the decision easily. Therefore, it can have said that the data analytics benefits both the users & the organisations & provides various facilities to them.


Executives of chosen data Set- Predictive & Prescriptive

Predictive analytics

Predictive analytics help to link data to successful action by representation dependable conclusions about current events & situations (Arkkelin, 2014).  This helps in organization to practical in cutting cost, reducing risk & increasing profitability, optimizing their business & driving latest form of business. 

The SPSS predictive analytics software used for:

  • Transform data into predictive approaching to direct frontline choices & interactions.
  • Predict what consumers want & will do further to enhance profitability & retention (Ayhan, et. al., 2013).  
  • Increases efficiency of the individual, process & resources.
  • Identify & avoid threats & frauds before they influence the association.
  • Determine social media effect of the products, services & marketing campaign.
  • Execute statistical analysis as well as regression analysis, cluster analysis & correlation analysis (Agudo-Peregrina, et. al., 2014). 

(Source: IBM, 2019)

Prescriptive analytics

(Source: DSC, 2019)

Prescriptive analysis can used to find out the best solution or results with all choices, given the recognized parameters (Vajjhala, et. al., 2015). When combined the predictive analytics, the prescriptive analytics can recommend result option for how to take benefit of future prospect or moderate upcoming risks. This analytics gives vast value to planners & decision makers .The main reason of the prescriptive analytics is not still widely used in difficult planning processes is that frequently these processes are exceptional to the organization. The accessible SPSS tools that previously offer superior planning together with prescriptive analytics don’t manage well among these business particulars (Keahey, 2013). It improves operations, reduces risk & mange resources efficiently.

Fig: Afghanistan Marital Status for men and women

Why it is used & why it is chosen or laid out in fashion 

SPSS was chosen due to its ubiquity within equally scholarly & business circles, building it the most generally used collection of its type. SPSS is similarly flexible packages that permit a wide variety of kinds of investigation, information change, & types of give up in short; it will further than satisfactorily fill their requirements (Sun, et. al., 2014). SPSS tool is utilized for both subjective & quantitative investigation can be examined by the product along these lines making the specialists work simpler. In this way, why SPSS is significant in information examination can’t be undermined since it has altered the information investigation process.

To condense what they have canvassed in this section, they will advance throughout accompanying strides as you make & execute a SPSS program: 

  • Access SPSS for Windows from PC hard drive or from system (LAN) 
  • Create an information record in SPSS Data Editor or SPSS Syntax Editor 
  • Save information record utilizing suitable document expansion (.SAV or .SPS) 
  • Specify an investigation to be kept running on information document (e.g., Frequencies) 
  • View consequences of an examination in SPSS Viewer Window 
  • Save yield record in this Viewer Window utilizing the SPO document amplification (Schoenherr & Speier‐Pero, 2015). 

Practical Approach

Improve the operations 

The CEO wants to improve the operations, the use of the tool SPSS solutions can help to improve or enhance the sale & operations of the company. The CEO should use the predictive analysis of the tool so that can help in predicting the outcomes, make smarter decisions & getting the better results for the company. The improvement can be made by the company by saving the money through the predictive analysis. Therefore, it can be said that the predictive analysis can help the business in saving the money (Duan & Xiong, 2015). The operation can be improved by avoiding the costly problems that can occur in the operations. This can be done as the SPSS tool can help in predicting the operating characteristics of the business cost effectively & accurately that can help in analysing the factors that can generate the downtime or the benefits to the business. Another through which the operations can be improved by the CEO using this software, as the predictive analysis can impact the profitability & the competitiveness of the organisation. The predictive analysis through this tool can help the business in to turn the vast amount of structured & unstructured data into actionable one. Therefore, through this it can be seen that there are various ways that can be used by the business to improve the operations & increase the sales of the business through the use of the SPSS solution tool.


Through this report it can be concluded that the tool that has been used for the data analytics is the SPSS solutions. It is the best tool as it can help to improve or enhance the sale & operations of the company. Data analytics is important to the business & the users. The data analytics helps the business to analyse the ways in which the existing information can be used to help the business in finding the way to the success. The report includes the details about the data analytics done in the business. The report includes the detail about the importance of the data analytics to the users & the organisation.

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This report will be based on a case study which determines about hairdressing chain. This study is based on Cut Short Salon which implements some new feature in their salon. According to the study, these features increase profitability. It addresses some recommendation which improves these new features and increases the rate of customer. It will address the new point which needs to be focused by the organisation and enhances the brand’s image of the organisation at the international level as well. Suggestion describes those concepts which need to be developed in the habit of the salon. Development and improvement are required for every organisation to grow in the same industry. This report will say that the salon needs to implement technology and the new technique which is useful for increases its brand image of a specific. Image is not enough. The salon must prove that its management and service is an exact what they promote in the market. Sponsorship will also help them to grow.

Question 1

In the field of salon service, the Cut Short started its works in the hair cutting and styling service. This organisation provides its hair styling services to its customer who would be booking its appointment from the online services. In this field, there are various organisations which provide efficient service to its customer. According to the report, the customer gets the advantage of service from the Cut Short. They save up to 15 minutes of each customer by providing the new advanced feature in its services. The recent adoption of new facility saves lots of time for each customer who visits the salon. When a customer visits the salon, the choosing styling takes time from the available services and the payment methods also took more time. These processes are very time consuming for every customer (Catherine, 2016). Cut Short implement some features which increase the profitability and minimize the time consuming by the customer. The implementation is as follows:

  1. a) Pre-booking appointment through online service (website) of the organisation –customer can select the service like restyle, blow wave, trim etc. with date and time.
  2. b) When customer completed appointment or pre-booking- the payment also is made online from the credit card or PayPal.
  3. c) Cut short encourages its customer for pre-booking, online payment by offering a 10% discount.

d)If the customer does not reach on their appointment time, they will be penalised from extra charge.

These features add by the Cut Short Salon which increases its profitability and optimizes the time resource in an efficient manner. The customer appreciated these feature because it reduces the complexity of booking, minimises the time for payment queue and significant use is to save the time for choosing a hair styling method (Dean, 2012).

Recommendations for the Cut Short Salon are:

Brand Awareness

It is a significant factor for any organisation that increases the profitability of the business. Cut Short Salon needs to increase its brand awareness in the local public. It increases by the rate of customer who visits the salon and at least tries once that particular service. The techniques required for brand awareness are brand ambassador, advertisement in print media by offering unique features or discount offers from another salon. Hire a celebrity who promotes the specific brand and performs advertisement on social media and television. 

Nowadays, social media is one of the best platforms for the promotion. If a celebrity promotes a specific organization or some brand, people automatically attract by and try at least once. The process of brand awareness requires lots of time, and more effort but organisation surely achieves the particular objects of the organization. Salon draws the attraction by providing unique hair styling features in fewer amounts, by providing combo offers or the special day in which they must offer a 50% discount to the customer (Engineering Business Journal, 2015).

According to the case study that Cut Short Salon provides pre-booking service on its website. If a celebrity shares the particular link of their website by which customer can easily access and take advantage of its service. Customer take services and they impressed from the salon service. It has the vast possibility that customer will become a regular customer. These strategies will be helpful to attract the customer.

Pamphlet will be distributed with the newspaper in the local areas. Fashion magazines include some part of the salon which says about newly updated services of the Cut Short Salon. There are some other alternatives which enhance brand awareness among people, i.e. Salon must collaborate with the modelling association, film industry. These associations are a very significant resource for brand awareness, and it is the primary tools which increase the growth of Salon. If the quality of work is more appropriate according to the expectation, respective Salon grows its brand in international based (Lewis, 2012).

Salon’s Administration 

As per the case study, salon improves various features and updated its service according to the demand of time, but Salon needs to be organized its administration as per its services. The customer expects to prefer those salons which give respect and treat well in the accordance of behaviour, attitude and the preference in the service. When customers visit the salon, first visit reception window and book its seat or inform about its pre-booking service about its respective function. It is the duty of receptionist that they respectfully welcome the customer and listen carefully about the service customer. If there is a massive queue maintain or manage accordingly that every customer will be satisfied with their preference level (Pocol, 2012).

After that, the customer will be seated for offering their services. Space must be hygienic, the use of the product should be high quality or original, the use of clothes or towel should be clean, the administration should take care of unwanted noise etc. These features will provide an initial level of relaxation and satisfaction to the customer.

Further, all these services, customer move towards the payment gateway if they already paid by online means that they avoid this step. Those customers who not paid online that give pay by cash, PayPal, credit card, debit card etc.

Employees of the respective salon must keep their attitude low in front of the customer and listen to the issues of the customer and gives them to the service according to their expectation (Soltani, 2016).

Innovation (Mobile Application)

This era belongs to the technology means, Cut Short Salon developed its website and offered the various feature on it. But it requires one further step towards technology. This Salon needs to improve its mobile application which enhances the level of participation towards the salon. Mobile Application is easy too, and notification will recommend the customer for special service.

The salon must be updated according to the hair styling options with the product because now people like to use the branded product. It increases the image in front of the customer that respective salon use branded product which surely brings improvement on their scalp of hair (Tsai,, 2012).

In traditional time people goes only on some special event or in monthly but now the time will change the mind of people. Mobile Application notifies about the unique offer and the reviews of customers as well.

In home page- Screen will be divided in some section like hair. Special part has subparts and like hail colouring, hair styling, hair cutting, hair straightening etc.

These sections will tell about the service and customer can access the information regarding particular service. This subpart information contains the product used for the service, specialist name, charges and charge will pay at the time of pre-booking. This method is taking less time and customer will get a notification if their pre-booking will be confirmed. Cut Short Salon get more benefit if they get the offer of home service because it will be charged more according to the service at the salon. 

This service will be available when the salon develops its mobile application and enhance technology. Pre-booking of service will be cancelled or postponed. This facility should be available at that app. If somebody cancelled its appointment, the amount would be deduced so that unwanted customer will not increase the traffic at the server (Wei, 2016).

This service shows that how many salons involved in the technology world and its make reliable towards the function of the salon. It will enhance the level of contribution from the sponsor products.

Beauty product and hair styling product companies are collaborating with those salons that make good its image in between the market.

Question 2

The unique suggestion which helps to improves the business service or operation offerings are as follows:

Use reliable products

The salon must focus on its regular contacts like they should always trust on reliable and original. The reliable hair product may be expensive, but the salon includes its habit that they never compromise with the product quality if the constraint is price, time or store. Cut Short Salon must highlight those things which might be attracted to the number of customers. The highlighted factor may be a reliable product and trustworthy. If salon undergoes in the sponsorship, they must be used by them only after appreciating by staff or salon individual. After this, the salon used or apply customer. Mostly, salon used various which give more fund for their sponsorship. If Cut Short Salon wants to grow at the international level, its essential requirement is to sponsor a global beauty product. Now a day people like to prefer international product because it believes that international product is more reliable due to its brand awareness among people. It enhances the rate of performance and customer rate. Salon proves that these products require the best service due to the human effort as well because every product demands specific effort and style. It will be determined when the salon staffs give their best and push their effort according to the demand for a particular product. Customer is curious about international services like hair spa, hair straightening etc. The salon should take a step towards that which maximizes the profitability and increase images in the market (Lewis, 2012).

Implementation of new service

New service will increase the excitement in the existing customer, and it attracts a new customer. The salon should be updated with the service which is recently implemented in the local market or international market. This strategy will complete the demand of customer and fulfils their expectation. People get aware about new service from social media, movies and serials. After watching videos and read about them customers want to implement on them also. But they want to give this chance to the experience personality or the reliable salon which can them easily trust and accept the new implementation. For example, a hair spa treatment is only for models or actress because of little bit expensive, and it requires good quality of the product. So just actors and models use this treatment, but nowadays it is entirely reasonable because salon uses technologies and gives hair spa according to the nature of hair and scalp. These strategies made profitable, so that salon starts implementation according to the market demand. Customer appreciates this theory and contributes their best favour. So, Cut Short Salon moves on this direction and offer new service to its customer. By this, salon increases its brand image because when it is ready to implement, they should advertisement in social media and give offers to the customer in their first service. It increases profitability, and it provides unique space in the same platform (Wei, 2016).


This report concludes the recommendation and suggestion of hairdressing chain. It was based on the case study in which a Cut Short Salon add some new exciting features which increase their profitability like pre-booking services, online payment through website reduce the wastage of time. It is the strategy which efficiently optimises the resource. Recommendation proves that salon needs to improve its existing service in a particular way and suggestion offers those strategies which enhance the rate of profitability with the traffic of new customer. This study concludes that salon is also a profitability sector because it increases or grows according to the time.


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Dean,D,H., (2012). Gender ethnic identity and patronage likelihood for a unisex hair salon.Young Consumers. Vol.13(2).pp. 124-135

Engineering Business Journal., (2015). Salon Allure Trade Show Evolves To Become “Hammock” With New Categories, Technology And Design. Engineering Business Journal.

Lewis, J. (2012). Festive party season the ideal time to promote your salon. Hairdressers Journal International.p. 5.

Pocol, A. G. (2012). Modern tools for sales promotion–online promotions (Report). The Proceedings of the International Conference, Marketing – from Information to Decision. Issue 5.p.380(16).

Soltani, Z. &Navimipour, N. J. (2016). Customer relationship management mechanisms: A systematic review of the state of the art literature and recommendations for future research. Computers in Human Behavior. Vol.61. pp.667-688

Tsai,, (2012). The Effective and Quality Approach to Reduce the Turnover Rate for Hair Salon Industry.International Journal of Sociotechnology and Knowledge Development.Vol. 4(4). Pp. 44-57.

Wei, J. T. Lee, M. C. &Chen, H. K. Wu, H. H. (2016). Customer relationship management in the hairdressing industry: An application of data mining techniques. Expert Systems With Applications. Vol. 40(18). Pp.7513-7518.