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Costs For Building and Construction Projects


ItemCost per Item (From Appendix)Cost for Project
EPA Permit$1345 per year$485.32
Work Cover$8900 per month$38537
Waste Disposal -Base$1199$1199
Waste Disposal -Frame$298$298
Waste Disposal –Lock up$480$480
Waste Disposal – Fixing$575$575
Total Waste Disposal$2552$2552
Toilets$600 each$1800
Site office$8450$8450
Meal Room$4000$8000
Locker Room$5250$10500
Planning Permit$360$360
Building Permit$425$425
Surveyor costs for Occupancy

Permit, pre-pour inspections,

Slab inspections and other mandatory inspection stages.


Will the above costs be used for inclusion in a tender or bill?

15 % of $ 72609.32 = $ 10891.398

$ 10891.398 + $ 72609.32 = $ 83500.718

Tax 3 % = $ 2505.2154

Tender = $ 83500.718 + $ 2505.2154 = $ 86005.9334

What information did you extract from plans and drawings to calculate the estimates above?

The information that is been extracted from plans and drawings were the cost per item for all the items and the total months that are required to complete the project. The number of toilets for the labour required is also been collected from the drawings and plans (Liu, et al., 2019).


Site prep estimateQuantityCost per day/hrTime required

(in days/hours)

SubtotalOverhead recovery
Crawler tractor1$ 100015 Days$ 15000$ 5250
Hydraulic excavator1$ 100010 Days$ 10000$ 3500
Rubber tyred front-end back-end loader1$ 100010 Days$ 10000$ 3500
Subtotal   $ 35000$ 12250
Manual trench excavation3$ 36020 Days$ 7200$ 2520
Manual oversite excavation2$ 36020 Days$ 7200$ 2520
Subtotal   $ 14400$ 5040
Grand total   $ 49400$ 17290


Employee type (according to Award)No of employees requiredLabour rate per daySubtotalTime requiredTotal cost
Inspection officer3$ 500$ 150028 Days$ 42000
Business analyst2$ 450$ 90010 Days$ 9000
Civil Engineer3$ 800$ 240075 Days$ 180000
Finance manager1$ 600$ 60028 Days$ 16800
HR manager3$ 500$ 1500130 Days$ 195000
Labour9$ 360$ 324075 Days$ 243000
Carpenter2$ 400$ 80030 Days$ 24000
Plumber2$ 300$ 60030 Days$ 18000
Total$ 727800

(Liu, et al., 2019)


MaterialsSupplier 1 unit priceSupplier 2 unit priceEstimated unit priceQuantity requiredSupplier 1
order price
Supplier 2
order price
Burnished Concrete Slab$ 50/ square fit$ 49/ square fit$ 49/square fit100 square fit$ 5000$ 4900
Ceiling batts$ 38$ 40$ 3850$ 1900$ 2000
Colorbond$ 12$ 15$ 12200$ 2400$ 3000
Brick Vaneer$ 50$ 48$ 48500$ 25000$ 24000
Plasterboard$ 40$ 34$ 4050$ 2000$ 1700
Aluminium frames$ 100$ 105$ 1125$ 500$ 525
Hume Oakfield$ 200$ 220$ 2205$ 1000$ 1100
Hume Savoy$ 200$ 220$ 2005$ 1000$ 1100
Aluminium sliding door set$ 300$ 330$ 3005$ 1500$ 1650
Gliderol Garage Door$ 200$ 190$ 2005$ 1000$ 950
Air conditioner split system$ 300$ 298$ 3002$ 600$ 596
Solar water heater$ 500$ 600$ 5002$ 1000$ 1200
Total$ 1990$ 2100$ 2019$ 42900$ 42721

(Ahn, et al., 2020)


1Name and describe 3 types of drawings relevant to the building and construction industry.
The three types of drawings relevant to the construction and building industry are as follows –

Architectural drawing – This type of drawing shows the whole pictorial view of the building which is known as complete view. This demonstrates the building’s location and this also remarks that where the several building parts must be placed. this itself comprises of diverse names – plan, elevation, section, etc. This upholds all the building’s technical aspects.

Electrical drawing – This is a kind of drawing which demonstrates the information and location of the electrical wiring, fixtures, and sub-station. This demonstrates the electrical load measurement. this provides information regarding communication, power and lighting for the architectural or engineering project.

Structural drawing – The name of this drawing clearly determines the purpose of this drawing. It displays everything concerning the structure such as their strengths of diverse parts of placement, size, structure, and grade of structural and reinforcement material, etc. This also has too many other types of drawings inside it. 


2What are proprietary specifications?
The proprietary specifications request that only one certain product can be utilised for provided installation. This is generally used is the project section needs the particular performance which only one product can acquire (Pinzón, et al., 2019).


3When performing a demolition, what is the meaning of the work gutting?
Partial or gutting dismantlement to the demolition of current structural and building installations is the very first step towards the modernisation. 


4Name 3 differences between an employee and a subcontractor.
The subcontractor delivers their own office space, supplies and equipment, whereas an employee is given the office equipment, supplies, and the workplace (Pinzón, et al., 2019).

The subcontractor establishes their working hours, whereas the employee is given the work hours by employers.

The subcontractor pays their taxes, whereas, the taxes are been deducted automatically in the salary of the employee by employer.


5What is an addendum?
The addendum is the type of attachment to the contract which changes the conditions and terms of the initial contract. The addendum is utilised to effectively and efficiently update the terms and conditions of several contracts type. The purpose of addendum is to change, nullify, or clarify the section of the initial document, that can be simple as ranging the dates for which the contract is legal or as multifaceted as redefining the payment deliverables and schedules.


6What is critical path method scheduling?
This is basically a common scheduling method within the construction industry because of the effectiveness and simplicity. This produces the graphical view for projects and measures that how much resources and schedule are needed to accomplish each activity. This also identifies the critical tasks needing the attention so that the project can be accomplished on schedule. 


7Explain the labour requirements of installing a roof and productivity is calculated.
The labour requirements for installing certain roof and productivity are as follows –

Initiate the work (Pandit, et al., 2015). 

Evaluate that how much time it takes to accomplish the tasks

Evaluate the work

Separate the task for getting it done per hour or per day

Compare them with the set standards 


8The Building Act 1993 governs building that occurs in Victoria. Name 3 objectives of this legislation. 
For increasing the building’s amenity.

For safeguarding the health and safety of individuals that utilise the buildings and further places the entertainment of public. 

To enable the efficient application and adoption of national plumbing standards and national building standards (Gunduz, & Yahya, 2018).


9Name 5 variables that contribute to estimations of construction costs.
Inflation factor

Construction material cists

Project schedule

Labor wage rates

Conditions of construction site


10List 5 health and safety responsibilities of the person in charge of a construction site, according to the National Standards for Construction Work.
The health and safety responsibilities of the person in charge of a construction site are –

To safeguard all associated members from any kind of risks that can occur probably.

To train the employees and staff regarding the health and safety measures that need to be taken by them.

To develop a policy related to the health and safety of individuals at workplace.

To provide all associated PPE related to safety of individuals.

To use the risk management plan when there is any urgency (Chopra, et al., 2018).


11Describe a ‘construct only’ delivery model.
The term construct only delivery model is utilised within the construction industry. The construct only involves only the construction project elements, as contrast to the procurement, design, or the current operations linked with the project.


12If you were constructing a commercial building and needed to refer to the BCA, which volume would you refer to? Why?
The volume 1 relates to the commercial buildings that includes class 2-9 buildings, so, I would prefer this volume as because this is commonly used for the purposes of the commercial buildings. In this volume the laundries and other associated spaces are not for the utilisation of residents (Gunduz, & Yahya, 2018).


13Explain the following site classifications:
Class AThe rock sites are having no ground movements
Class MReasonable movements of ground is there because of the changes in moisture
Class H2This is a highly responsive clayey soil which is between the dryish and pettish soil moisture conditions can develop very high movement of ground.
Class EThese are tremendously reactive sites, that may experience dangerous ground movement from the changes in moisture. 


14What are 3 features that indicate an abnormal site?
The three features which denotes the abnormal sites are –

P classification

Multiple cortical feature

Abnormal moistures


15Give one reason why you might utilise experienced employees who have a higher rate of pay, rather than cheaper, unskilled labourers.
I would use the experienced employees that have the higher rate of pay because firstly, he is having much experience, he increases the productivity, there is no such need to pay attention on him as he can manage their tasks by their own (Pandit, et al., 2015).  


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