In the present era, it has been seen that there are plenty of accounting mistakes are arises while recording of financial transactions. It is because of not having proper accounting system utilize by organisation during the time. The primary objective of using this system is to attain short or long term objectives that are set by the company. Management accounting is an essential aspect for an organisation that would assist manager at the time of managing their day to day operations. This report analyse specific effort that could promote proper understanding among various department among Hilti GB Company which is operating in UK. This project report aimed at providing crucial information about various accounting system and reporting used within an organisation. Apart from this, use of various costing method to calculate net profitability for the company is discussed in this report. Along with that advantage and disadvantage of using planning tools that can assist manager to control their budgets. Further, comparison of different management accounting system in resolving financial problems has been covered effectively in this project report.
- Part A
- P1: Concept of management accounting and its essential requirement
In every business organisation, it has been analyse that manager are always looking to have an effective accounting system that can assist them to record each and every business transactions into their respective statements. It would be reliable for them take necessary decision on that basis of this particular data. The manager are playing eminent role in summering and analysing the information that are collected during the time (Parker, 2012). The primary motive behind doing so is to attain overall goal of Hilti GB Company that has been set for the period. It has been determine that managers are using specific provision for accounting data in accordance to attain better data themselves before they would decide specific matters within the company. it would aids their overall management and profitability aspect to control overall function that are performed within an accounting period of time. There are valuable procedure which is useful for preparing management reports and accounts which would provide reliable and timely financial as well as numerical data those are needed by managers to make specific decisions. Management accounting is mostly generates monthly or weekly statements for an organisation internal department such as finance managers and chief executive officers. The scope of management accounting is very wide because of having plenty of features and characteristics. There is various key definitions that has been provided by scholars or authors. Some of them are mentioned below:
According to J. Batty: “Management accounting is a specific term that can be used for the purpose of describing the accounting standard, system and provision that complied with certain knowledge and capability of administration in their activity of increasing profitability and losses”.
Types of management accounting system:
Cost accounting system: It refers to an essential system that is design by business to estimate overall cost for their products in order to attain profitability, stock valuation and cost control. The primary motive behind this particular system is to control total cost which are incurred in production of product and services within Hilti GB (Salterio, 2015). It tends to measure the best possible inefficiencies of necessary modification to deal with additional cost or expenses that are incurred during the time.
Inventory management system: It is one of the key accounting system that can be useful for tracking stock levels, sales or purchase delivery record of inventory within an accounting period. It would also assist in production sector to develop a work order and other production related documents. It is all about looking always to increase efficiency that can provide constant flow of units in or out of an available stock position. There are various types of management system tools which are used to record the invoices such as LIFO, FIFO and AVCO.
Job costing system: Another important accounting system used within Hilti GB. It is basically related to assigning and accumulating production cost of single units of output produced during the period. This particular system is useful in case there are various items produced by the company and have sufficiently different from one another. It does have their own number and production date mentioned on it.
Price optimisation system: This particular model is always consists of numerical plan that is helpful for computing overall demand which can vary at several price levels. This approach allows Hilti GB Company to make use of appropriate pricing as an effective profit lever that often is underdeveloped. It can be used to tailor pricing for clients segments through simulating targeted customer responses to cost chances as per the given scenario (Hasniza Haron and et. al., 2013). By the help of this system manager can easily be able to determine overall perception of customer towards the product price which are decided by the company during the time.
- P2: Different kind of management accounting reporting
In accordance to examine the company’s overall position or profitability in near future time the reports must be a key aspect that is taken into account. It happens to a valuable source of business intelligence that can assist overall business leaders to make reliable and accurate decision in coming period. However, these reports are basically only as valuable aspects in work that can goes into formulating and presenting specific data that has been collected from various transactions. It has been seen that there are various sources from which data can be gathered in relation to prepare a report (Agrawal and Cooper, 2017). The primary reason of recording data into their respective format is because these reports are presented in front of various investors and stakeholders that are making specific contribution in the various projects of Hilti GB. The data collect for these reports are taken from various statements such as profit and loss, balance sheet, changes in equity and cash flow statement. It is more complex software that enables manager to control the entire legal reporting process. The overall decision regarding the growth and sustainability of the business is relies on the financial position of the company. There are various types of management accounting reporting that is prepared by the company. Some of them are mentioned below:
Performance report: This particular reporting system is an essential report which is based on overall performance of company. These are prepared on constant basis by the concern department that is being financed through public capital. In most of the situation, this report is based on past and previous year data that has been collected by the manager to prepare the financial statements of the company. It would be produced for every employee of an organisation or such report can assist the department to assess the overall success of any project that are planned during the period.
Inventory management report: It is an essential reporting system that is based on accurate and reliable information which will allow company to discover current trends as well as examine the positive and negative aspects. The primary ways to prepare this report is to determine opening and closing stock information that has been kept by Hilti GB in their business operation (Laine, Paranko and Suomala, 2012). There are various ways to evaluate the stock position for the company such as activity based costing, economic order quantity and stock turnover ratios. It has been seen that a perfect inventory management strategy can assist in saving time as well as cost. It can also have real time to attain monetary benefits in coming time.
Job cost report: Another crucial reporting system that can assist as well as accumulating producing costs of individual units of results. This particular job costing is helpful in various items produced that is having sufficiently different from one other. The reports consist of specific information about each group or individual product manufactured during the time. This would support this report, it would allow certain job numbers that assigned to individual items of expenses and earning incurred during the time.
Account receivable report: It is an essential aspect that is legally enforceable claim of payment that has been held within a business for products supplied rendered that to have customer is having ordered but does not paid for that product. This report consists of specific lists of unpaid customer invoices as well as credit memo as per the mentioned date ranges. The aging report is considered as primary tool that can be used through overall collection of personnel to analyse which bill is overdue for payment. This can be helpful for internal decision making because manager can easily be able to determine total time of gaining the outstanding amount (Ismail, 2012).
Budget report: It is an essential report that is prepared for internal purpose in order to make comparison of estimated as well as budgeted projection to that with actual one. It primary reason behind using this report is to known that income and expenses information can changes on regular basis for a company. This particular report often referred to a financial report that consists of detail information about the business owner plans that are made for the future.
- M1: Benefits of using management accounting system
In relation to all above discussed various accounting system that are equally beneficial for an organisation in managing and recording their information into their respective statements. In accordance to cost accounting system which is used to control the additional costs those are incurred during production process, whereas inventory management system is basic tool that tends to record all stock related detail information that are sell or purchase during the time. Similarly, price optimisation is another system that is used in business to analyse the overall perception of customer toward various prices strategies those are applied for the product offered by the company to them. However, Job costing system is beneficial to determine one single unit cost that is charged by company at the time of manufacturing process.
- D1: Critical analysis of the management accounting system and reporting integration
In context to earn maximum profitability in near future time managers are using various tools or system that can assist towards achieving their task more effectively. In this process both system and reporting are directly relation to one other. Cost related information is recorded by using costing accounting system. This would assist in analysing the strength of the company by using performance report that has been prepared by using data from costing methods. Whereas stocks related entries are recorded by using inventory management reports and system so that chances of minimum order or level of inventories can easily be identified. Further, job cost report or systems are equally reliable in evaluating the total cost they are investing in production of each group or units.
- Part B
- P3: Calculation for the given portfolios
Cost is said to be value of amount which is incurred for the getting something. It is generally done in case of monetary valuation of various departmental data. The value which is given up for assets must be related with Hilti GB engineering company products. There are various specific costing methods which are used by the company in order to analyse total net income they are earning during the time (Budding, Grossi and Tagesson, 2014). The best ways to analyse the performance by using cost benefits analysis techniques which is a right option available with organisation in terms of collecting accurate information about increase profitability. It is an essential procedure that can be helpful for the manager to determine cost of producing products in relation to deal with a business by using proper resources in various stages of manufacturing. The data which is issues through using costing method is taken into account for the purpose of attain long term objectives. Some of the vital methods which can be useful for Hilti GB company is mentioned below:
Marginal costing: It is said to be additional cost that is incurred by company during the time of producing one extra unit with the same amount of resources. It is also known as period costing because only variable costs are taken into account and fixed cost get written off to get contribution. The reason behind consider more accurate for decision making is because of its nature as there is not any difference occurs in case of any changes in variable cost in production process.
Absorption costing: It is another valuable costing method that can be used by Hilti GB Company to calculate net profit. It is said to be full costing method because both variable and fixed cost are taken during the time of production. There is a constant chance of variation in the direct material, labour or any other overhead those are used during the time. The results are analysing on the basis of over and under absorb concept that has been computed through using production cost and closing stock information (Amoako, 2013). In some situation, company does not thing this method a valuable techniques that can help in overall decision making on the basis of profit generated by the company.
Income statement using marginal costing
|Less:||Variable cost||10% of sale value||42750|
|Variable production o/h||9||40500|
|Less:||Cost of goods sold||231750|
|Add:||Fixed production overhead cost||7500|
|Less:||Cost of goods sold||128750|
|Less:||Fixed production overhead cost||-6000|
Income statement using absorption costing
- M2: Application of management accounting techniques and financial reporting document
In relation to determine maximum profitability for the company, it is essential to make use of right accounting techniques. It can help in calculating positive outcome for the company so that chances of losses can be overcome. Some of the crucial techniques are standard costing that is associated with the company for analysing their upcoming budgets. It can be evaluated by the help of using difference amount from the standard and actual costs those are incurred during the time. Similarly, another techniques is marginal costing which is used in case of additional cost incurred by the company while production of extra units.
- D2: Interpret the financial data for the problem in Annex B
According to the problem number 6 of Annex B, it has been analysed that purchasing price of €7.75 and the total cost of €9.00 could be recommended as an essential element that must be brought in the business. Moreover, actual comparison among marginal cost of manufacturing and buying cost of 7.75 must be taken into account. This would indicate that this particular element must be produced instead of bought. The primary reason behind this is that fixed costs of € 175000 which is collected from the total units of 50000*3.50. According to this outcome the overall capacity will remain unused and fixed cost could not been absorbed during production process. In case, BK 200 bought, the overall earning comes down by € 112.500 that is actual difference calculated from purchasing price on the basis of marginal cost such as (7.75-5.50)*50000.
- Part A
- P4: Advantage and disadvantage of using planning tools to control budget
In every business organisation, it has been essential for them to make proper planning keeping in mind about the profitability and growth opportunities. Planning used to play an eminent role in overall management of organisation resources so that valuable amount of outcome can be attain in near future time. Once the strategic action is worked in financial term through a well effective budget, it could be helpful as a technique for appropriate administration of organisation resources. A budget is a necessary management tool utilize in planning, monitoring and analysing the availability of finance for Hilti GB engineering company. It is an estimation of total cost and expenses that are going to be incurred in near future (Burns, 2014). There are various key planning tools those are effectively useful in controlling budgets that are prepared by company during the time. Some of them tools are discussed below:
Forecasting tools: This particular planning tools assist the top management of Hilti GB engineering company to cope up with every uncertainty that are going to arise in future. It is entirely based on past and current trends of data which has been recorded into their budgets. There are certain assumption that are relies on administration experience and decisions. In order to analyse the budget issues this model can be more helpful to estimate future information as a valuable function of past data.
Advantage: This particular tool is having certain benefits that provide business more crucial information that can be useful to make future decision. In most of the situation, utilisation of qualitative data has relies on overall judgement made by the concern expert.
Disadvantage: The one of the biggest limitation of this tool is that it is entirely relies on estimations. But because of having qualitative nature of predication a business cannot always considered as more profitable within internal growth of the company.
Scenario planning tools: It is basically termed as strategic planning tool that can be use by Hilti GB engineering company to make flexible long term plans. It is in wide areas of adaptation and simplification of techniques which is implemented in group coordinating activity. The primary requirement of this tool is to enable specific scenarios as per the market demand. There is no any doubt about companies to make use of this tool to attain certain profit in coming time.
Advantage: By the help of this planning tools manager can adapt a systematic thinking ability. It would provide a positive mechanism before occurrence of any problem in critical situation.
Disadvantage: It has been seen that in present situation, scenarios are not so clear that can create lot of burden for manager to make utilisation of techniques in right point of time. It happens to be more underscore that can be a sufficient helpful aid to deal with uncertainty.
Contingency planning tools: It is valuable course of action that has been framed to assist an organisation to respond perfectly to a valuable future activity that care going to be occurring in near future time. It works as plan B, because it could be more reliable for company as alternative action in case alternative outcome fail to disappear (Klemstine and Maher, 2014).
Advantage: It is more accurate or reliable tool because manager can use quickly to take necessary steps to deal with a problem that would stop manufacturing of products. It is more essential for a profitable business because it can be work as backup plan in some critical situation.
Disadvantage: The biggest limitation of using this planning tool is its cost and time taking ability. Along with that the employees of staffs need special training to face any urgency situation.
- M3: Analyse the use of planning tools and their application
|Project X||PV factor @12%||Cash outflow|
|Project Y||PV factor @12%||Cash outflow|
|Payback period||More than 6 years|
From the above two project X and Y, it has been clearly seen that project is taking 5.8 years time to recover the amount, whereas project y is taking more than 6 years to recover their 8000 amount. Thus, project X is more reliable and it should be accepted for future planning. The Forecasting planning tool has been used to determine the changes occur in two given projects.
- Part B
- P5: Comparison of how organisation using MA system to resolve financial problems
Nowadays, it has been seen that there are various kinds of financial and non-financial problems are arising within an organisation. It would directly or indirectly impact the overall performance and productivity of the company. However, it is vital for manager to make regular analysis of these issues so that it would not affect the internal strength of the company. Some of the common issues that are generally found are mentioned below:
Cash flow issues: It has been analysed that cash issues are more common problems that are faced by most of the business organisation. Capital in more valuable aspects for any successful business without which not any firm can survive for longer period. It can basically arise because of inappropriate flow of cash in the business. In some situation such kind of problem arises because the company is not able to pay their liabilities and it becomes outstanding.
Productivity issues: Another important issue that has been faced by organisation is related with their production capacity. They do not have sufficient amount of resources and capital to manufacture products. Because of which company cannot be able to generate reliable amount of profit during the time. It can directly impact on the goodwill of the company (Sisaye and Birnberg, 2012).
All the above mentioned financial issues can be resolve by using appropriate MA techniques those are mentioned below:
KPI (Key performance indicators): It is known as cover sheet for any business that helps in measuring a wide range of business activities from marketing to finance. It would keep close look on the financial performance which is essential part for the company to attain long term success.
Financial governance: It is one of the crucial management techniques which are based on government regulation. The main reason behind development of this rules and regulation is to provide guidelines to smooth operating of their activities.
|Hilti GB Company||Airdri|
|It is essential for the company to make use of cost accounting system to deal with their additional cost or expense those are charged during production process.|
|Key performance indicator techniques must be use on regular basis overall idea about the current performance can be taken into account.||Financial governance is the best ways to follow all the regulation in the business to overcome any future mistakes.|
M4: Analysis of MA in resolving financial problems
It has been analysed that in accordance to attain better future or sustainability in coming time the company need to make utilisation of right accounting system. There are various financial problems those are related with inventory, cash and profit. These all can be overcome by using Key performance indicators and setting a benchmark for future losses. Inventory management related problems can be resolve through using just-in-time methods. Every method or techniques of management accounting can lead to Hilti GB to attain better potential or growth in coming period.
- D3: Evaluation of planning tools for accounting to solve issues
It has also been evaluated that in order to overcome financial issues that are uncertain for the company can also be resolve by using various planning tools. Some of them are forecasting tools that is based on future budgeted risks can be helpful for manager to deal with upcoming implications. In accordance with the contingency situation a plan B must be available with the company to overcome cash related problems (Zoni, et., al., 2012). All of these are equally valuable for attaining maximum growth and sustainability for the company in near future.
From the above project report, it has been concluded that management accounting is a key element that helps any business organisation to record and summary their everyday business transactions. However, both management accounting system and reporting can help Hilti GB Company to deal with their accounting information. Further, use of right costing methods can give positive outcome in terms of net profit to the company. It has been suggested that with the proper use of planning tools budget related issues can be reduce. Also, financial issues could also be overcome by the help of appropriate accounting system and chances of attaining sustainability can also be enhanced in near future.
Books and Journals:
Agrawal, A. and Cooper, T., 2017. Corporate governance consequences of accounting scandals: Evidence from top management, CFO and auditor turnover. Quarterly Journal of Finance. 7(01). p.1650014.
Amoako, G.K., 2013. Accounting practices of SMEs: A case study of Kumasi Metropolis in Ghana. International Journal of Business and Management. 8(24). p.73.
Budding, T., Grossi, G. and Tagesson, T. eds., 2014. Public sector accounting. Routledge.
Burns, J., 2014. Qualitative management accounting research in QRAM: some reflections. Qualitative Research in Accounting & Management. 11(1). pp.71-81.
Hasniza Haron, N., Kamal Abdul Rahman, I. and Smith, M., 2013. Management accounting practices and the turnaround process. Asian Review of Accounting. 21(2). pp.100-112.
Ismail, N.A., 2012. The impact of information technology on performance: The mediating role of management accounting systems. Jurnal Teknologi. 46(1). pp.27-44.
Klemstine, C. F. and Maher, M., 2014. Management Accounting Research (RLE Accounting): A Review and Annotated Bibliography. Routledge.
Laine, T., Paranko, J. and Suomala, P., 2012. Management accounting roles in supporting servitisation: Implications for decision making at multiple levels. Managing Service Quality: An International Journal. 22(3). pp.212-232.
Lim, M., 2011. Full cost accounting in solid waste management: the gap in the literature on newly industrialised countries. Journal of Applied Management Accounting Research. 9(1). p.21.
Parker, L.D., 2012. Qualitative management accounting research: Assessing deliverables and relevance. Critical perspectives on accounting. 23(1). pp.54-70.
Salterio, S.E., 2015. Barriers to knowledge creation in management accounting research. Journal of Management Accounting Research. 27(1). pp.151-170.
Sisaye, S. and Birnberg, J.G. eds., 2012. An organizational learning approach to process innovations: the extent and scope of diffusion and adoption in management accounting systems. Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Van der Stede, W. A., 2015. Management accounting: Where from, where now, where to?. Journal of Management Accounting Research. 27(1). pp.171-176.
Ward, K., 2012. Strategic management accounting. Routledge.
Zoni, L., Dossi, A. and Morelli, M., 2012. Management accounting system (MAS) change: field evidence. Asia-Pacific Journal of Accounting & Economics. 19(1). pp.119-138.
- Working note for Absorption costing
|Working note||1st Quarter|
|Cost of goods sold|
|Less: Closing stock||(500*51.5)||-25750|
|Fixed prodn o/h cost pr unit||15||75000|
|over absorbed fixed prodn cost||-7500|
|Working note||2nd Quarter|
|Cost of goods sold|
|Variable cost production||5900*42||247800|
|Less: Closing stock||(3400*51.5)||-175100|
|Fixed prodn o/h cost pr unit||15||88500|
|over absorbed fixed prodn cost||6000|