Nature and Trends of Tourism on a Global Scale Assignments

Nature and Trends of Tourism on a Global Scale Assignments

LO1

P1 Interpret statistics to accurately present an overview of the nature and trends of tourism on a global scale

Tourism is one of the largest industries contributing to its economy. According to the latest research by the World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC), in 2016 tourism contributed US$ 64 billion to the Top 10 countries economy and the figure can be doubled in the coming decade. The modernization in today’s world is growing at a rapid pace. People are more into travelling then settling down in their own house. Almost every year approximately one billion people travel internationally. Money transfer happens in seconds and billions of cash are transferred on a daily basis. Information and money go hand in hand in this travelling market. Tourism is now one of the most profitable sectors for a country nowadays. It can be pointed at the top 10 countries all over the world have largely contributed to this immense growth of tourism. In the previous ten years, the profit made by tourist arrival was nearly four folds.

                                   Figure 1: Highest number of tourist arrivals

Source: (Google, 2019)

 As it shows on the figure the highest tourist arrivals from the top 10 countries is United States with 75.9 millions arrival and $210.7 billion expenditure in 2016. On the last places is Japan with only 28.7 million and $34.1 billion. 

P2 Investigate the characteristics of key tourist generating and receiving areas of the world

Out of the top 10 countries, stock rise in the field of tourism rapidly in this modern world of globalization. The city guided itself in the main tourist attraction in the Top 10 countries by building a huge number of projects which mainly attracts tourist from all over the world. These projects are made in such a way that it allows the city to accommodate and facilitate its tourist within the city. These places were pivotal for the city directing towards the new world. These tourists’ spots were important in joining the city with the global estate. The citified transformation of the cities shows a captivating model of marketing with globalization and profiting from its flows by the people. Whilst the city does provide you with natural beauty that it’s another counterpart.

Characteristics
LocationFor attracting the tourists to the destination, location is one of the most important factors. It is obvious that people will want to see places which they have not seen in their life ever. Like America is country where the historic monuments is not very easy to be seen and that makes them to go to the countries like India which is rich in historical monuments.
ClimateAnother important factor that attracts tourists to a destination is the climate. Like people who live in the places that are hot will go on tour on the cold places and vice-versa. 
EnvironmentThis is one of the most important factors because tourists are mostly attracted to the places where they can have some fresh air and clean environment where they can have some relax with nature. 
CulturalMany people of the different countries get excited when they see some unseen cultures of the world and this is what makes them attracted towards those locations which are rich in culture. 

M1 Analyse how the scale and nature of tourism on a global level has been influenced by the emerging economies

The importance of tourism starts with the numeral benefits and advantages that it can bring to the country. However, the real importance of tourism is that it contributes to the complete growth and development of the economy by sharing a good percentage in the gross domestic product percentage of a country. Apart from this, tourism helps the country to build brand value and image and identity that may help in foreign relations for the country. When tourism is going well in a specific country then it is automatically economically growing without any much efforts being invested in. The definition and structure of how tourism nature is in a specific city are very important to improve the tourism in a particular City. Tourism is not just about the attractive destinations; it is beyond that it plays a major role as an economic growth contributor.

D1 Critically evaluate the impact of both key and emerging markets, and significant factors affecting global tourism

With 1 billion International visitors in 2012 end 1.8 billion expected tourists by 2013, Global tourism is definitely improving and the statistics and the improved graph for proof of that. Growth is not just enough and that is why the destination and the stakeholders involved must take responsibility to make sure that the growth is well managed so that the benefits that come from the tourism industry are properly utilized. This way negative external component can be minimized and a continuous process of planning and its management can be improved (WTTC, 2013).

According to the World Bank group, the clients and development partners of the top 10 countries are in the process of planning and managing the components required keeping the city as the central tourism interest of these countries. This process is required planning and management to be delivered with the proper developmental impact (Phelan, 2015). The team is also working on the intervention and the implementation of types of assistance that could provide better results in this process. The travel market report confirms that American travellers prefer Top 10 countries to be the topmost European destinations with a 4.63% increase in the number of bookings from 2017. The tourist numbers increased to 19 Million in 2016 according to the Office for National Statistic Report.

Regardless of the existing power is one of the most popular tourist parts in the Top 10 countries, the serious concern lies on how the Trends and challenges can be met and how the plan prepared others to the complexity, accuracy, and compatibility and sustainability factors of the impact analysis.

Sustainable Tourism Global Solutions group have come up with a leadership event in Washington recently to start a preliminary discussion about how the stakeholders can be combined and discuss the upcoming issues. This helps in measuring the impact of tourism and how the various challenges can be tackled.

LO2

P3 Determine specific reasons for the growth of key global tourism generating and receiving areas of the world

To start with, there are certain economic determinants such as social status, income, environment, etc. that play a major role in the Global tourism which is personal income. The distribution of income and currency value is something that influences tourism demand. Symptoms and expenditures are related to each other. As a result, the increase in the currency value or the price will lead to a decrease in the demand why the increase in the income may be combined with decreased demand are the increased income with the demand remaining the same. The combination could be anything and cannot be judged.

The exchange rate has made a stronger influence in the tourism demand starting from the generating area to International tourism. The exchange rate variations are highly vulnerable and main definitely very when it comes to the holiday season. The tourism industry makes an economic contribution to the particular destination and they can also have positive or negative economic impacts with respect to the benefits and costs in the destination. The social element also influences tourism demand such as the behaviour of the crowds, human being rights, etc. This includes the demography as well. 

The 4 A’s of destination are the Attraction, Accessibility, Accommodation, and Amenities. These are the main reasons for the tourism and travel into a destination. If a country’s destination has all these factors they will obviously high tourism rate in the country. There are some factors like historical, geographical and cultural that makes the tourists attracted towards a destination. Like India is rich in historical places, geographical and cultural factors also favour the destinations of India and from the research it has been found that India is also an emerging destination of tourism. 

P4 Compare and contrast the differences between a range of emerging global tourism destinations in relation to stages of the destination life cycle, factors driving growth, and strategies employed

To assess key growth and trends of a global tourist destination like Top 10 countries means monitoring and evaluating the impact after tourism initially. It has to contribute in an effective manner to tourism development. There are going to be certain challenges like how the terrorist attack impacted the tourist destinations of the Top 10 countries in a negative manner and how the regions have slowly improved from the same. 

These challenges must be taken into concern as its impact, availability, quality, and consistency of the industry (Lew, 2018). There are other factors like the rise of an online website to make bookings and stays that is impacting the top ten hotels and related companies present physically in the Top 10 countries. All these have to be properly managed to ensure that the business world does not hit with the tourism industry as both equally contribute to the economic growth of the region.

The two developing and emerging countries with attracting destinations for the travellers are India and Myanmar. India is country with a lot of historical monuments and place in different cities and the people who love to know the history are willingly visiting India. Historic destinations like Rajasthan, UP, Delhi, etc. are attracting the tourists to India. India and Myanmar also have destinations for the lovers of the nature like Kashmir, Kerala, Old Bagan, Yangon, and many more such destinations. 

M2 Evaluate and compare the importance of different factors affecting and driving tourism statistical trends in a range of different global regions

Some analysis is required in exploring the change theory by closely looking to the proposition of tourism growth and the factors that determine the behaviour of the tourists. There are different types of tourism available and the impact of each type must be evaluated. The role of technology and assessment must also be taken into consideration. As such, there are a number of key areas to be focused when it comes to the tourism industry and determining its contribution and improvement. Stakeholders must be informed of the changes made in the industry and a record of key trends and growth factors must be taken into consideration as well.

LO3

P5 Investigate the role and responsibilities of key international organisations in the development of global tourism

International tourism is an important part of the economic sector. Just like the tourist and the investments collected by the government tourism department of the nation, the businesses also show equally more and contribute to the economy as taxes. Actually, the organisation plays a key role in the development of global tourism. Starting from the top list of the International Air Transport (IAT), United Nation (UN), European Union (EU), United Nations World Tourism Organisation (UNWTO), World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC) etc. and hotels, restaurants, shopping mall and travel agencies come under the list of organisations that contribute to the development of global tourism. For example, Dubai is famous for its shopping mall all and there are several people who visit the place to shop best quality products. Likewise, the quality e of the organisations contributes to the development of the tourism industry of the city. It is likely that if the government is able to support these organisations then the tourism industry can be improved collaboratively. This is an effective thought as compared to the sectors individually working hard.

Their primary responsibility includes strategic planning and prioritization of initiatives.

  • Branding: The organizations works with both private and public sector tourism and commerce partners to promote Top 10 countries as a dominant international business and convenient, leisure and recreational destination around the world.
  • Promotion: The organizations promote the city as a best and elite destination for tourism, entertainment, and events. It features the facts that Top 10 countries have great infrastructure, facilities, and events.
  • Marketing: Representative offices are managed by The organizations in key markets around the world and take part in commercial marketing and promote emirate’s tourism facilities.
  • It spreads awareness of countries as a host for world-class events.
  • It also works as a regulatory body and manages the licensing and classification of the tourism industry.

M3 Evaluate the significance of key organisations in the growth and development of global tourism

Key Organizations contributing to the Development of Global Tourism in Top 10 countries

The roles of these key organizations include regulating, promoting, branding, marketing, and spreading awareness about the key elements which helps in the growth of tourism in all countries (Caton, Schott and Daniele, 2014).

There is a possibility that the contribution of the tourism industry in some countries economy may get doubled in the next decade. The organizations will surely play a major role in the huge growth and development of global tourism during the next decade.

This organisation like International Air Transport (IAT), United Nation (UN), European Union (EU), United Nations World Tourism Organisation (UNWTO), World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC) playing a massive role in global tourism development.

European Union (EU) – contribute in the development by taking off visa from all European countries, currency are the same for most of Europe countries, make it more accessible and easy to visit European countries, economic growth, employment (more job roles for people).

World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC) – contribute in the development of the tourism by studying and publishing in the research on the Travel and Tourism sector, making available new jobs, analysing the impact of government policies affecting the travel and tourism sector such as jobs and visa facilitation.

United Nations World Tourism Organisation (UNWTO) – it is an agency responsible for sustainable and universally accessible tourism, they contributes a lot in tourism development bu keeping our environment safe and not polluted.

LO4

P6 Review the significance of various threats, issues and challenges to the future development of global tourism

 Tourism has been growing steadily since the past decades. Their tourism is a part of the Top popular countries’ like USA, France, Spain strategy to make it a global hub for tourism, which was earlier known for its oil-fields and natural gas reserves. Their excellent road connections between the neighbouring nations and easier access through tourist visa are some of the reasons for the growing stature in the world’s economy.

Threats of tourism:

Although all countries are striving forward towards becoming a global tourism hub but below are some threats to its ambitious dreams.

Economic

Most of the countries have become a shopping hub and are known as the shopping capital but the rules and regulations are often not in the favour of visitors. The travel and tourism industry has now become one of the most economy providing countries. The rise in the economy by travel and tourism is because of the rising income of the people in many countries, which allows them to spend on the travelling. People of many countries have disposable income which allows them to save at the time of recession also and with the rise of the disposable income people can do traveling once in a while. The rate of exchange fluctuates regularly. If the people from countries with high currency rate travels to country with low currency rate increase the economy of the country as foreign exchange is very good for economy for the countries with low currency rate. 

Social Trends

Rapid urbanization and modernization have had a considerable impact on ancient architecture threatening and historical landmarks (Carr, Ruhanen and Whitford, 2016). Some countries have recklessly invested in new technology and western structure. Other countries modern structures have superimposed their vernacular and indigenous architecture.

In the last few years, global tourism saw an exponential increase in 4 and 5-star hotels and at the same time, a decrease in the standard hotel apartment. This means that staying for a decent amount of time has become impossible for an average income family. The needs of the customers are also needed to be considered in this industry as they always keep on changing and the current generation customers of travelling can spend money but only if they are comfortable enough. Fashions in the travel and tourism changes regularly like for today’s generation the motive of the travellers is to do shopping and shopping has become a major activity in the tourism. It has been found there are many changes in the events of tourism has taken place like travellers have now started enjoying the adventure in traveling and they join the events in which they will have some adventure in travelling. 

Political

Although some of the countries are not known for any terrorist scenario according to today’s scenario of terrorism, multinational hospitality chains, and other significant structures can be targeted by terrorists (Lee and Oh, 2017). Due to the growth of visitor the ecology of the desert and sea gets affected.  Most of the countries airport is located near the city and the frequent flights can disturb the residence and also can increase the carbon footprints. There are also some factors of politic that should be considered in the travel and tourism industry like exit policy of the country, restriction in travelling, tariffs, safety, etc. Exit policy of the country can be strategy or a plan that helps a project to be completed or halted in the most effective way and it is used most often in the removal of the troops from country by not allowing them to invade. There are many countries with travel restriction, especially for the people suffering from HIV; in fact, some of the countries do not even allow the people to live in the country having HIV. Safety policies of the travellers are also in of the most concerned factors of political and it is the responsibilities of the provider of the tourist accommodation that the tourists stay fit and healthy while they are on the premises of the country. 

Technological

One of the challenges that persist in many countries is a narrow selection. Unlike the Caribbean and South East Asian counterparts, some countries have no proper selection of cultural and natural heritage in the form of beaches. Shopping and other leisure activities have sterility and homogeneity even if it is constructed on a grand scale. Therefore, in order to become a global hub for tourism, many countries will have to overcome all the threats and challenges that are posing in front of it. Technologies like mobile and cloud can also be used to make the people aware about different destination as it allows people to advertise the destination to a vast number of people from around world. Online booking has made a major impact in the business of the tourism as it allows an individual to clearly book the tickets, hotels, dinner, etc. from the internet facilities they have with any confusion. The expansion of the distribution channel has also made major changes in the tourism industry like channel internet. Internet can be used as a tool of marketing, tool of information, tool of purchasing, and many more. 

Environmental

The Global travel industry is quickly approaching and that is why the largest of obstacles on the way. The threat of terrorism and the rise of sharing economy and the transmission of health issues and the uncertainty and the global economy are some of the selective problems that come along with Global tourism as of now. The European regions are specifically going through the after effects of Brexit and the certain it is at its minimum in these places. Consider these highest number of risk that this Global tourism may face, here are the major threats 2 Note.

Other serious challenges

 Many different challenges like over population, in this case the capacity of the country will suffer and the local people who was born and live there. Crimes are very important challenge and many countries trying to solve it because people will not choose a destination where is not safe.

Terrorism may pose as one of the greatest threat of the travel industry. In recent times, foreign visitors have been focusing on better holiday destinations in some countries and the wake of terrorist attacks price the concern of security and this is why the hotel Occupancy rate sarcastically falling down. In France, there was a 45% decline in the revenue in the hotel after the attacks in July 2016. According to the statistics from Paris, the hotel Occupancy rate is now half of what it had a letter specific number would be 32% as mentioned in the second half of July while 77% was Occupancy rate half year back (Bushell and Bricker, 2016). This has been a problematic area for the French tourism industry while Paris ranks as the third most popular city destination for the foreign visitors in the year 2015 with 50 million visitors contributing to 7% of the annual GDP of the country.

M4 Analyse the implications of significant threats, issues and challenges to global tourism

The state of affairs across Belgium is extremely discouraging. Brussels lost 150 million euro in the revenue after the terrorist attacks in April and the hotel bookings fell short of 25% compared to the previous year. Clearly, a vast majority of the most popular tourist destinations are facing serious issues with the decline of tourist numbers in the last couple of years. The threat of terrorism has had an adverse impact on the number of tourist and the corporate travellers for also finding it as a strain. According to a recent survey the terrorist attack has impacted around 8.2 billion Euros in the revenues of travel spending when it comes to the tourism. The major travel operators of the nation are facing major profit lags because of this.

In an atom to throw some positive light over this issue, there are certain travel analysts auto expert who has declared that the tourist destinations are slowly recovering from the impact of terrorist attacked quickly than they would from any natural disaster. If the regularity of attacks of frequent and are increasing with time then the impacts would be longer and the recovery second time would not be similar to that of now (Carr, Ruhanen and Whitford, 2016). The impacts also could be impossible to predict which clearly make sure that terrorism is a serious threat to the tourism industry.

D2 Make justified recommendations for Government and other international organisations for managing future tourism development in response to threats, issues and challenges

The sharing economy of travel industries is another threat to Global tourism. This means collaboration of consumption of goods and services by making use of a peer to peer services s. The rise of Companies like the Airbnb is adding to the attraction of sharing economy and this is definitely a threat to the Global hospitality industry. Some experts also state that the brand value of the standard Hotel chain we may decrease significant please this year and this attributes to the rise of sharing economy. The predicted fallen brand value has been noticed by all the industry joints in the region. This is definitely a big hit on the online travel agencies and Hotel plans. The travel sides are pushing the major hotels and organizations to the bottom of the search results. Several Hotel brands have launched campaigns to ensure the booking levels do not decrease with a Commission basis. Other travel companies have decided to go with the flow rather than standing against smart strategies and giving up on the revenue numbers. This mother has led to certain triple throughout the travel market and is leading to a change of strategy for most of the company.

Health issues are one of the most critical aspects of the downfall of the tourism industry. Starting from Ebola to typhoid, they have all had a detrimental impact on the tourism industry in recent years (Jauncey and Nadkarni, 2014). When the World Health Organisation declared Zika virus to be a Global Public Health emergency this definitely impacted the tourism industry which was not noticed by many of the people. It is a big hit in the economy.

References

Bushell, R. and Bricker, K. (2016). Tourism in protected areas: Developing meaningful standards. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 17(1), pp.106-120.

Carr, A., Ruhanen, L. and Whitford, M. (2016). Indigenous peoples and tourism: the challenges and opportunities for sustainable tourism. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 24(8-9), pp.1067-1079.

Caton, K., Schott, C. and Daniele, R. (2014). Tourism’s Imperative for Global Citizenship. Journal of Teaching in Travel & Tourism, 14(2), pp.123-128.

Google.(2019) Top 10 countries with highest number of tourists arrivals. [online] Available at: https://www.google.com/search?q=figure+of+the+top+10+countries+from+any+year+with+a+highest+number+of+tourist+arrivals&rlz=1C1CHBF_enIN844IN844&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjOncz9z7biAhU_8XMBHZ8GCZUQ_AUIDygC&biw=1152&bih=592#imgrc=RpSaxdGHQrROYM [Accessed 7 May.2019].

Jauncey, S. and Nadkarni, S. (2014). Expo 2020: What must Dubai’s hospitality and tourism industry do to be ready pre- and post-event?. Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, 6(4), pp.381-386.

Lee, S. and Oh, H. (2017). Sharing travel stories and behavioral outcomes: A case of travel. Tourism Management, 62, pp.147-158.

Lew, A. (2018). Why travel? – travel, tourism, and global consciousness. Tourism Geographies, 20(4), pp.742-749.

Phelan, K. (2015). International Cases in Sustainable Travel & Tourism. Tourism Management, 50, pp.253-254.

United Nations World Tourism Organisation. (2017) International Tourism Arrivals.[online] Available at: https://media.unwto.org/content/infographics  [Accessed 12 May.2019].