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Wireless sensor network is a self configured, as well as infrastructure less wireless network, which is considered in order to inspect physical and environmental condition that is deployed in huge amount of wireless sensors in an ad-hoc manner. On the other hand, the routing protocols are one of the best techniques, which are considered to exchange the routing information among different routers. In this report, a brief illustration regarding the wireless sensor network has been conducted, along with the routing protocols. Apart from that the planning of the work for rest of the semester has been elaborated, along with the problems encountered.

What has been achieved so far

So far, we try to propose the best routing protocol in wireless sensor network for exchanging the routing information. Moreover, we have made the primary goal of the report. Furthermore, a proper plan has been developed regarding the process of keeping the study on track corresponding to the secure protocols in wireless sensor network. Additionally, we have tried to find the existing issues regarding the protocols in “wireless sensor network”.

Concept of Wireless Sensor Network

The wireless sensor network is a type of wireless network, which is deployed on the adhoc network and that helps to measure the external environment corresponding to the entire network. There are different applications corresponding to the wireless sensor network, such as internet of things, measure noise level of surroundings, agriculture, landslide detection and others (BenSaleh et al. 2020). Apart from the advantages, there are some challenges regarding the wireless sensor network, such as quality of the services, security issue, energy effect related issue, network throughput, performance related issue, scalability related issue and others.

Concept of Routing Protocols

The “routing protocols” are one of the most effective tools in networking for exchanging the routing information among different routers in a network. There are different types of “routing protocols”, such as “Routing Information Protocols”, “Interior Gateway Protocol”, “Open Shortest Path First”, “Exterior Gateway Protocol”, “Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol”, “Border Gateway Protocol”, “Intermediate System to Intermediate System” and others. Apart from these, there are different protocols named “distance vector protocol”, “link state protocol”, “path vector protocol” and others. The “RIP” is one of the oldest protocols, which is used in both “local area network”, as well as “wide area network” and it runs on the application layer on the “OSI model”. There are mainly two versions of RIP, such as “RIP version 1” and “RIP version 2”. The RIPv1 helps to communicate with the entire network with the help of broadcasting; whereas the RIPv2 is little bit sophisticated than RIPv2 (Ghaleb et al. 2018).

Moreover, the “Interior Gateway Protocol (IGRP)” is a “distance vector protocol”, which has been introduced by CISCO. It is the bigger version of RIP, which laid on the the RIP functions and connected with a large network easily. It is faster than the RIP as it update the broadcast on every 90 sec and the maximum hop count of this is 255. Furthermore, the “open shortest path first protocol” is a “link state protocol”, in which the shortest path first technique has been considered, along with the Dijkstra algorithm. These are the main protocols that are mostly considered in a network system.

Different Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

Based on different parameters, the routing protocols corresponding to the wireless sensor network are classified in different categories, such as network organization based routing protocol, route discovery based routing protocol, operation based routing protocol and others. In addition, these protocols are also divided into different sections, such as the network organization base dprotocol is classified as “flat based protocol, hierarchical based protocol, location based protocol” and others; whereas the “route discovery based protocol” is classified as reactive protocol, proactive protocol, hybrid protocol and others; moreover, the opeerational protocol is classified as “negotiation based protocol”, “multi path based protocol”, “query based protocol”, “QoS based protocol”, “Coherent based protocol” and others (Khan, Hassan and Jung, 2020). In wireless sensor network, the routing protocol helps to find the best route to every network; these routes are added into the routing table. Furthermore, the main advantage of these advantage is that the routers exchange the routing information at the time of topology change with the help of different routing protocols. In the wireless sensor network, routing protocol plays a significant role in order to send the information among the sensor nodes, as well as the base station for establishing the communication.

Planned Work for Rest of the Semester

We have planned that in the coming semesters, we will try to implement different protocols in wireless sensor network. Moreover, we plan to implement the system using either Ubuntu operating system or packet tracer software. In the case of ubuntu os, we plan to implement the entire network system in network simulator and try to conduct the simulation. After conducting a successful practical work, we will prepare the final report corresponding to the topic.

Problems Encountered and the Plan to Keep the Study on Track

The main problems in order to conduct the project is lack of resources; there are different generic resources but no such specific resources are there, which can be used. Moreover, in case of conducting the practical work regarding this, we don’t have any idea of ubuntu os, as well as network simulator. We try to overcome the issue by learning about ubuntu os, along with the network simulator from internet. Apart from this, we don’t have enough knowledge regarding all the protocols; we also try to gather various knowledge regarding all the required protocols.  


From the above conducted study, we can conclude that as per the operational basis routing protocols are divided into different categories corresponding to the wireless sensor network, such as “multipath routing protocol”, “query based routing protocol”, “QoS routing protocol” and others. Moreover, we can also conclude that the routing protocol helps to determine one off the best path towards each network. Additionally, we get to know regarding the importance of routing protocols, which states that the routers exchange the route information through routing protocol during topology change.


BenSaleh, M.S., Saida, R., Kacem, Y.H. and Abid, M., 2020. Wireless sensor network design methodologies: A survey. Journal of Sensors, 2020.

Ghaleb, B., Al-Dubai, A.Y., Ekonomou, E., Alsarhan, A., Nasser, Y., Mackenzie, L.M. and Boukerche, A., 2018. A survey of limitations and enhancements of the ipv6 routing protocol for low-power and lossy networks: A focus on core operations. IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, 21(2), pp.1607-1635.

Khan, H., Hassan, S.A. and Jung, H., 2020. On underwater wireless sensor networks routing protocols: A review. IEEE Sensors Journal, 20(18), pp.10371-10386.

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